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Eating Disorders Semester 2 2011 By Gloria Stacy Tsion Lili
Introduction • Definition of Eating Disorders • Causes of Eating Disorders • Symptoms • Treatments • Preventions • Conclusion
Definition of Eating Disorders • Refuses to eat in an attempt to satisfy a psychological need rather than a physical need • Eating behavior problems • Preoccupation with food
Types of Eating Disorders • Anorexia Nervosa • Bulimia Nervosa • Binge eating • Anorexia Athletica • Over Exercise • Over Eating • Night Eating • Orthorexia
Anorexia Nervosa • An obsession with diet and body image • Low body weight • No menstruation • Loss of appetite • Poor digestion
Bulimia Nervosa • An obsession with diet and body image • Normal body weight • Extreme unhealthy methods to control weight • A feeling of loss of control over eating behavior • Bingeing • Purging
Causes of Eating Disorders • Negative family influences • Biological/genetic influences • Psychological problems • Social influences
Negative family influences • Family history of addiction or emotional disorder • Parental behaviors or attitudes • Family history of obesity • History of abuse
Biological/genetic problems • It’s known that people with biological sister, mother or other relatives who suffer from eating disorder have more chance to develop eating disorders compared to others who don’t have the same history. • Also if the brain functions abnormally due to stress, mood and appetite, it can cause eating disorders. • Biological changes during adolescence can also lead to eating disorders.
Psychological factors • Most of those with eating disorders tend to have problems with : - Low self-esteem - Stress - Obsession with perfectionism - Poor anger control skill
Social factors • In a modern society, the idea of beauty is extreme thinness. Success and self-worth are commonly associated with being thin, which may lead to the belief “the thinner the better”, hence the eating disorders.
Anorexia Nervosa Symptoms By Stacy
Symptoms • Refusing to eat and denying hunger • Secretive behaviour around food and exercise • Low body weight: less than 85% of normal weight for their age and height • Flat mood or lack of emotion • Preoccupation with food • Dizziness or fainting • Menstrual irregularities or loss of menstruation • Constipation • Dry Skin • Purging and bingeing behaviour
Bulimia Nervosa Symptoms By Stacy
Symptoms • Self-induced vomiting • Excessive exercising • Irregular heartbeat • Dehydration • Sores in the throat and mouth • Constant dieting and fasting • Going to the bathroom after eating or during meal
Treatment of Bulimia • Family support - least expensive - suitable for patients with mild conditions • Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) - a kind of psychological treatment - successful in over half of cases
Treatment of Bulimia • Drugs anti-depressants known as SSRI such as: FluoxetineSetralineParoxetineFluvoxamine ▶ Hospitalization
Treatment of Anorexia • Restoring normal weight and nutritional intervention: hospitalization Inpatient : a weight-gain goal of 1-1.5 kg for a week Outpatient : a weight-gain goal of 0.25-0.5 kg for a week Increase to 2,000-3,500 calories a day
Treatment of Anorexia • through the nose to the stomach • through a tube inserted • through the abdomen into the stomach • insert a needle into the vein and infuse fluids containing nutrients directly into the bloodstream • administer carefully Tubal feedings for patients who refuse to eat Intravenous feedings in life-threatening situations
Treatment of Anorexia • Exercise The goal of exercise is to improve physical fitness and health, not to burn off calories. • Psychological approaches children and adolescents: Family therapy adults: motivational psychotherapy + CBT • Medications • antidepressants: not many benefits reported with SSRI • nutrition supplements: Calcium and Vitamin D often recommended • some reports of Zinc to help gain weight
Prevention of Eating Disorders • Healthy eating • Healthy weight control • Active involvement in sports
Quiz – questions and answers • Do you feel that others pressure you to be thin? • Do you feel guilty about what you eat? • Do you feel that your weight is one of the only things you can control • Do you feel you've become isolated from family and friends? • Do you prefer to eat alone? • Do you use food as a comfort? • Do you consume large amounts of food in a brief amount of time? • Do you feel fat despite others telling you that you're not?
Do you ever exercise excessively? • Do you ever induce vomiting after eating or drinking? • Do you count all the hidden calories or grams of fat in each bite of food? • Do you often feel depressed and unhappy with yourself? • Do you diet excessively? • Do you use laxatives, diet pills, or diuretics each week? • Do you weigh yourself several times each day? • Do you eat when you're lonely, anxious, depressed, or nervous?
Key to the quiz If you answer “yes” to five or more, you may have an eating disorders.
Conclusion • Definition of Eating Disorders • Causes of Eating Disorders • Symptoms • Treatments • Preventions
References • http://kidshealth.org/parent/emotions/feelings/eating_disorders.html • http://www.psychology.org.au/publications/tip_sheets/eating/ • http://www.umm.edu (University of Maryland Medical Centre) • http://www.eatingdisordersonline.com