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Medieval Art. From 200 to 1400. Mrs. Harvey. Chronology of Medieval Art in Europe. Early Byzantine Art Justinian Era - ca. 526-ca. 725 Iconoclasm - 726-843 Early Medieval Art Pre-Romanesque Art Carolingian Art - 750-900 Ottonian Art - 900-1002 Romanesque Art - ca. 1000–ca. 1150

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Medieval Art

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Medieval Art

From 200 to 1400

Mrs. Harvey


Chronology of Medieval Art in Europe

  • Early Byzantine Art
  • Justinian Era - ca. 526-ca. 725
  • Iconoclasm - 726-843
  • Early Medieval Art
  • Pre-Romanesque Art
  • Carolingian Art - 750-900
  • Ottonian Art - 900-1002
  • Romanesque Art - ca. 1000–ca. 1150
  • Early Gothic - 1140-1194    
  • Gothic Art
  • German Gothic - 13th-14th-centuries
  • English Gothic - 1179-16th-century
  • High Gothic - 1194-1300
  • Proto-Renaissance in Italy- ca. 1200–ca. 1400

Carolingian and Ottonian Art


Our attention shifts from Byzantium to the West and, more specifically, to the rise of the kingdom of the ______________________ (768-814). The so-called ___________________________rekindled the life of culture after the dark period following the fall of the _________________________________________________________________________________________and the rise of the so-called barbarian tribes.


The term “___________________” refers to the reign of _________________and his _____________________, although in terms of art the particular qualities of Carolingian art did not ______________________________________________. On Christmas Day in __________, Pope Leo III crowned him “Emperor of Rome” at St Peter’s Basilica. Charlemagne’s seal read _________________________________________________(“the revival of the Roman Empire’).


An interest in ____________________________________________________________can be seen in this manuscript painting which demonstrates how the art of this era could ________________________________________________________________________________Matthews wears a toga, and the modeling of the head, hands, and feet creates a feeling of 3-dimensional illusionism. The fluid brush strokes –________________________________________—express a frenzy of divine inspiration.

Saint Matthew. 816-23.

10 1/4" x 8 3/4".


Charlemagne's reign saw _____________________________________________________. Those reforms would _________________________________________________________that, in some ways, endured into the modern period. Equally important was ____________________________________________________________. That act would establish a political office that would exist in Europe until the end of World War I in the twentieth century. It also became a cause for friction between Rome and Constantinople because the Byzantine emperors ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.

palace of aachen
Palace of Aachen

The ______________________was a group of buildings with residential, political and religious purposes chosen by Charlemagne to be the __________________________of the Carolingian Empire. The palace was located at the north of the current city of Aachen, today in the German Land of North Rhine-Westphalia. Most of the Carolingian palace was built in the 790s but the works went on until Charlemagne's death in 814. The plans, drawn by Odo of Metz, were part with the program of renovation of the kingdom decided by the ruler. Today much of the palace is destroyed, but the Palatine Chapel has been preserved and is considered as a masterpiece of Carolingian architecture and a characteristic example of architecture from the Carolingian Renaissance.

Throne of the Holy Roman Emperor’s at Aachen Cathedral


Like Charlemagne, the __________________________________________________________, and brought Germany and most of northern Italy, including Rome, under his control before being crowned emperor by the pope in 962. Otto established a _______________________________________. Ottonian patrons and artists continued the elements ___________________________________________________________________, and from ancient Roman, early Christian, and Byzantine periods.


Illusionism and fluid touch of the brush derived from the ancient world are replaced with a flat, abstracted style that uses __________________, as in the hand and arm of Christ. The emphasis is on his __________, as seen in the gesture of the blessing, rather than on the mundane theme of washing the feet.

  • Placement of ________________against empty gold field
  • Architectural forms _____________________view that it is indoor scene

Christ Washing the Feet of Saint Peter. c. 1000.

8 x 6". Manuscript painting on vellum

gero crucifix c 970 cologne cathedral germany height of figure 6 2
Gero Crucifix, c. 970. Cologne Cathedral, Germany.height of figure 6' 2”.


Archbishop Gero of Cologne (ruled 967-976) commissioned this sculpture about 970. It is one of the few large works for carved wood to survive.

The figure of Christ is over-life-size, and the focus here, following Byzantine models, is on Jesus’ _________________as tortured martyr, not as triumphant hero. It is meant to inspire ______________________________.

bronze doors of bishop bernward 1015 height 16 6
Bronze Doors of Bishop Bernward, 1015.height 16' 6”.

A pair of bronze doors made under the direction Bishop Bernward for his Abbey Church of Saint Michael represents the most ambitious and complex bronze-casting project—each door was cast as a single piece!—since antiquity.


The Carolingian world was essentially __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. There was little in the way of city life on any scale. The outpost of rural Europe was the miniature town known as the monastery or the stronghold of the nobles. The rise of the _____________and increased _______________________would eventually destroy the largely ______________________and __________________________as the High Middle Ages emerged in the eleventh century.

Feudal Society


The Monastery in the West

The monastery was perhaps the _____________________________________________________________________________________________________. During the 6th century, _________________gathered so many followers that he wrote a _____________________. This became the basis for later medieval monastic ___________________________________________________. Through an emphasis on literacy and education, required to participate fully in Christian life, monasteries played a vital role in continuing and preserving Western heritage.

The Medieval Monk


St. Gall Monastery, plan. c. 819. 3' 8" x 2' 6". (Switzerland)

The nave and side aisles provide numerous altars needed because each priest was required to say Mass daily. At the western end of the church, __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


introduction to art 1000 to 1400
Introduction to Art 1000 to 1400
  • During this period, Christianity ________________________________________.
  • _________________—a container for __________________________________________________________________________________________, who hoped to benefit from their proximity. The Christian content of this object is evident in its ____________________.

Reliquary in the shape of a church. c. 1170. Height 1' 9 1/2".



  • _________________Art
  • TellingStories—____________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • _____________________theNarrative—in a ____________
  • Narrative _______________centralized composition __________________________________________________
romanesque art in europe early gothic
Romanesque Art In EuropeEarly Gothic
  • The term was first applied in the ___________________to designate European medieval art of the ________________________
  • Distinguished by ________________________________________________________________________________________________

Christ in Majesty with Angels, Symbols of the Evangelists, and Saints, from San Clemente, Tahull, Spain.c. 1123.

Diameter of apse approx. 13'.


Art and the Pilgrim

  • Manuscript __________________________________________________
  • New development was the revival of monumental architecture and art, i.e., Cluny
  • The notion of the ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The Romanesque Artist in Europe

  • Artists organized into ____________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Offered protection for the artists as a group and promoted social prestige
  • Few works signed from this period

Dover Castle. Center distance: Roman lighthouse tower, rebuilt Anglo-Saxon church, earthworks.Center: Norman Great Tower, surrounding earthworks and walls, 12th century. Outer walls, 13th century.

  • More efficient _____________facilitated __________________________, and people began to move from _________________________________________. Increased prosperity provided resources for burgeoning ________________activity in Europe. Building was focused on __________________________________________

During the middle Ages, monastic orders ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. Cluny, mother church of a reformed Benedictine order, became the center for learning and patronage of art. It was the largest in Europe at the time of its completion (consecrated 1131-1132).

Romanesque monastery and third church, reconstruction. c. 1157.



King Harold Receiving a Messenger, detail from the Bayeux “Tapestry.” c. 1070-80. Height 1' 8", total length 231'.

the bayeux tapestry
The Bayeux “Tapestry”
  • It was probably executed by ______________________________________________________________. More than 75 scenes are accompanied by Latin inscriptions.
  • The embroidery was intended for ____________in a great ______________________.

The embroidered narrative depicts events ________________________________________________________________________

On the sky to the left is __________________, which was visible in England in late April 1066.

romanesque architecture at conques
Romanesque Architecture at Conques

The monastic church of Ste.-Foy (Sainte Foy—Saint Faith) was located along one of the pilgrimage roads that would eventually lead to Santiago de Compostela in western Spain.

The Romanesque structure was built around and older church probably begun in the Carolingian period.

The use of ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Nave, Abbey Church of Ste.-Foy,.c. 1080-1120.


A feature of the Romanesque pilgrimage church was the_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Abbey Church of Ste.-Foy.

Abbey Church of Ste.-Foy, plan.

the romanesque church portal
The Romanesque Church Portal
  • __________________________________was one of the most notable features of _________________architecture.
  • The most important ____________was located on the lintel, the _____________.

Gislebertus (?), The Last Judgment, west portal, Cathedral (originally Abbey Church) of Saint-Lazare, c. 1120–1130 or 1130–1145. France.

Pentecost, the Peoples of the Earth, and Saint John the Baptist, Abbey Church of La Madeleine, Vézelay. 1120-32.

Gothic Art

The Gothic style, the preeminent style in Europe from _______________________________________________________was first defined in architecture and architectural motifs throughout Gothic art. Easily identifiable because of its unique _________________________________________________________________________________________________________. Gothic architecture seems to have been developed by ______________________________________________________friend and advisor to French kings Louis VI and VII.

Gothic emerged in the ______________________the French king’s domain around Paris. Within 100 years and estimated 2,700 Gothic churches, shimmering in stained glass, were built in the Île-de-France region alone!


the franciscans and the gothic artist
The Franciscans and The Gothic Artist
  • ________________________of Europe was accompanied by significant developments of monasticism; emphasis shifted from ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
  • In early 13th century St. Francis of Assisi founded the begging order.
  • The vast majority of works are ______________________, but we begin to find references to specific artists in a few documents, where named are praised for their skill.
  • Emphasis on __________________________in interpreting the New Testament


The High Middle Ages saw the growth of a number of institutions that stood in sharp contrast to those of the Carolingian period. Foremost was the rise of the city. Urbanization brought with _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________. The increased need for a ______________________________triggered an expansion in education that would eventually lead to the university of scholars. Urbanization also warred against the old feudal values; it fostered trade and commerce; it made possible the growth of what today we would call a ______________________________who stood on the social ladder between the rural peasant/city worker and the landed royalty or hereditary aristocracy.


gothic art in france
Gothic Art In France

Abbey Church of Saint-Denis


Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Chartres


royal abbey church of st denis
Royal Abbey Church of St.-Denis

Here is where Gothic architecture was invented!

______________________________or vestibule in between have and west entrance of cathedral

_____________________– perfect shapes of Christian works in circles or squares

________________________– historical lineage from French kings; provides balanced frame for Rose windows



______________________– supporting armatures to transmit the thrust of the vault or roof to an outer support


st denis interior
St Denis, Interior

Harolding the dawn of the Golden Age of Gothic Architecture in the 12th Century, Suger realized his life's dream of building an abbey that would have "the most radiant windows" which would "illuminate men's minds so that they may travel through apprehension of God's light."In his writings, ______________________________, equated _________________with the light that shimmered through the stained glass windows of his beloved abbey___________________________________________________________________________________________________

madonna of jeanne d evreux 1339 height 2 3
Madonna of Jeanne d’Evreux. 1339. Height 2' 3".

The particular figural pose that _______________________________________________is revealed here. This work was presented to the abbey of Ste.-Denis in 1339 by Queen of France.

The Madonna stands in the Gothic _________________________________________________________________________.

In typical Gothic fashion the __________________________________________________________________________

The stylized iris held by the Madonna is the fleur-de-lis the symbol of French royalty.


Chartres is the _________________________________________________________________________________not only for the quality of its architecture and sculpture, but also because it alone preserves virtually all its original stained-glass windows.

A tall church was ______________________________________. In addition, height could fuel rivalry between neighbors, for during the Middle Ages the local cathedral was an __________________________________________________________________________________________

chartres cathedral west facade
Chartres Cathedral, west facade.

The mismatched towers of the façade reveal the changing nature of Gothic style. The shorter, transitional Romanesque-Gothic tower was completed before the fire of 1194; the elaborately decorated, fully Gothic spire was not begun until 1507.

rose and lancets north transept chartres cathedral c 1230 1235
Rose and lancets, north transept, Chartres Cathedral. c. 1230–1235.

Windows tell _________________________________________________________________________________

Not all windows at Chartres are narrative.

Monumental iconic ensembles were easier to _______________in lofty openings more removed from viewers such as the huge transept rose with 5 slender lancets beneath it, which proclaims the Virgin Mary’s royal and priestly heritage.

looking back
Looking Back
  • The art and architecture of Gothic France experienced a rich and rapid evolution, as it emerged from Abbot Suger’s vision of light-saturated monastic spirituality in the 1140’s.
  • To enhance the desired effects of light and color, architects made buildings taller, walls lighter, and windows larger.
  • NOVA: Gothic Cathedrals