Transition from Greek, to Roman, to Middle Ages Greek Idealism Roman Realism Middle Ages Religious
General Notes on Medieval Art • From the 13th Century to the 15th Century almost all art was paid for by the Church. • Generalizations: • Lacks depth or perspective • Figures are stiff and elongated • Facial expressions lack emotion • Background frequently a solid color
Madonna Enthroned Duccio c. 1285
Giotto • Student of Cimabue • Breaks with medieval style • New volume and vitality for figures • Drapery falls naturally • Throne more believable space • Some medieval characteristics • Gold haloes • Inconsistent scale Madonna Enthroned
Duccio Annunciation of the Death of the Virgin, Maestra Altar 1308-11
Giotto di Bondone • Giotto was the most important Italian painter of the 14th century • Father of European painting • First of the great Italian masters from Florence
Giotto • Arena Chapel in Padua • Frescoes • Life of the Virgin, Life of Christ, Passion of Christ
Giotto • Eyes rest on action, they do not move around • 3-dimensional reality • Figures, rather than architecture, create the space Giotto, Lamentation 1305-06
Giotto vs. Duccio Duccio Christ Entering Jerusalem Giotto Christ Entering Jerusalem
Annunciation Simon Martini, 1333
Les Tres Riches Heures • Limbourg Brothers (Paul, Hermann & Jean) • Painted 1413 – 1416 • Example of a Medieval Book of Hours • Shows differences between peasants and aristocracy
February • Winter in a peasant village. The inhabitants of a farm are shown warming themselves by the fire, while in the background daily life - cutting wood, taking cattle to the market - goes on as normal. • Earliest snow scene in the history of western art
August • The month of hawking; the nobles, carrying falcons, are going hunting while in the background peasants are harvesting and swimming in the river. • Behind them is the Chateau d'Etampes.
September • Probably the most famous of the calendar images. • The grapes are being harvested by the peasants and carried into the beautifully detailed Chateau de Saumur.
October • Tilling and sowing are being carried out by the peasants, in the shadow of the Louvre - Charles V's royal palace in Paris. • The first cast shadows since ancient Greek art
November • This is the only calendar image executed by Colombe (an apprentice) • The picture shows the autumn acorn harvest, with a peasant throwing sticks to knock down the acorns on which his pigs are feeding.