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  1. Jack the Ripper Famous Serial Killers SOURCE: Dr. Kelley Kline FSU-PC

  2. Who was Jack the Ripper? “Jack the Ripper" is the popular name given to a serial killer who murdered several prostitutes in the East End of London in 1888. The name came from a letter written and published in the local paper by an individual claiming to be the killer. The killings took place within a mile area and involved the districts of Whitechapel, Spitalfields, Aldgate, and the City of London. He was also called the Whitechapel Murderer and "Leather Apron."

  3. Where did this happen? The killings took place within a mile area and involved the districts of Whitechapel, Spitalfields, Aldgate, and the City of London. He was also called the Whitechapel Murderer and "Leather Apron."

  4. Why is Jack-the-Ripper so infamous? Although not the first serial killer in history, the Ripper’s crimes are legendary for several reasons: 1. The Ripper was the first serial killer in a major city with an educated populace. Hence, his crimes were well documented by the police and the press. 2. The Ripper appeared during a time of political turmoil. 3. The Ripper terrified a city by leaving his grossly mutilated victims in plain sight. 4. Finally, the Ripper was never caught adding to the mystery.

  5. Who were Jack-the-Ripper’s Victims? It is generally agreed that the Ripper killed 5 women, but many believe the true # to be closer to 9. 1. Mary Ann (Polly) Nichols, murdered Friday, August 31, 1888. 2. Annie Chapman, murdered Saturday, September 8, 1888. 3. Elizabeth Stride, murdered Sunday, September 30, 1888. 4. Catharine Eddowes, also murdered that same date. 5. Mary Jane Kelly, murdered Friday, November 9, 1888. **All 5 victims were prostitutes killed between August & November 1888. It was thought each of the victims was drunk at the time of their murders.**

  6. How did the Ripper murder his victims? He strangled them until they died or were unconscious. Autopsies of the victims support this cause of death. The Ripper then lowered his victims to the ground, their heads to his left. The victims’ throats were cut on the ground as evidenced by the blood splatter patterns (pooled beside neck & head, rather than in front if body if victim had been standing). Ripper cut the victims’ throats from left to right, suggesting he was right handed & could flee the scene blood free (blood flow would be in direction opposite the killer).

  7. Ripper’s Modus Operandi (contd.) The Ripper mutilated his victims’ in numerous ways following the throat slashing (cutting out their internal organs, cutting their genitalia, face, extremities, etc.). There was NO forensic evidence of rape or masturbation (lack of semen fluid/stains; no physical evidence of forced vaginal/anal penetration). Note: they didn’t have DNA tests in 1888 so there still could have been sexual activitythat was undetected. The Ripper took usually took a piece of the victim’s viscera (gut lining) as a memento of the murder. **It should be noted that the killer had extensive knowledge of human anatomy & may have been a surgeon or butcher.

  8. Canonical five The canonical five are those victims the authorities are sure to be Ripper victims. They include: Mary Ann Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes and Mary Jane Kelly.

  9. Polly Nichols- Victim #1 Charles Cross found the body of Polly Nichols at 4 AM on August 31. He saw the body lying on the ground near the entrance to a stable yard. On closer inspection, Cross saw it was a female lying on her back, with her skirts lifted up to her waist. Another person on the street noticed the body as well & both men tried to help the woman not realizing she was dead. They covered her bottom torso & went looking for police. Constable John Neil was the first on the scene. He noticed the victim’s throat had been slashed from ear-to-ear & sent for an ambulance. The neighborhood was then canvassed for any potential eye-witnesses (none were found).

  10. The Murder of Polly Nichols • The victim’s throat was slashed twice & with such force that the knife cut through the esophagus & windpipe. • There was very little blood on the ground, suggesting strangulation prior to throat slashing. • Abdominal mutilations were present. There was a long long jagged knife wound over the abdomen with several cuts running downward. • No witnesses were found for the murder.

  11. Annie Chapman-Victim #2 The victim’s body was found at 6 AM an John Davis, an elderly carman. Her skirts had been raised up to her pelvis. He sought help and returned with others. No witnesses---Despite bustling area at 5:30 in area where body was found, no one in neighborhood heart any suspicious activity or disturbances. No one was seen with bloody clothing fleeing the scene either.

  12. The Murder of Annie Chapman The victim was found with her left arm lying across her left breast, with her legs drawn up, feet resting on ground, knees turned outward. • Jagged deep incision on throat cut from left to right. Cut nearly severed her head from her neck • Small intestines were attached, but lying on ground on right side of body. • Part of stomach had been severed and placed above left shoulder. •The uterus, ovaries, upper portion of vagina, & posterior 2/3rds of bladder had been cleanly removed from the body and taken by the killer.

  13. Elizabeth Stride & Catherine Eddowes – Victims #3 and #4 Both were killed on Sunday 30th September 1888. Stride's body was discovered at about 1 a.m., Whitechapel. The cause of death was one clear-cut incision which severed the main artery on the left side of the neck. This differed from the other murders as there was an absence of mutilations to the abdomen.

  14. These are often referred to as the double event. Eddowes' body was found in, in the City of London (fairly close to the earlier victim), three-quarters of an hour after Stride's. The throat was severed, and the abdomen was ripped open by a long, deep, jagged wound. The left kidney and the major part of the uterus had been removed. This was the closest the police ever came to acquiring a description of the Ripper

  15. QUESTION Why do you think the Ripper struck twice on the one night??? He never did it before or again...

  16. This was the closest the police ever came to acquiring a description of the Ripper Witnesses who thought they saw Stride with a man earlier that night gave differing descriptions: some said her companion was fair, others dark; some said he was shabbily dressed, others well-dressed. A local man, Joseph, had passed through the square with two friends shortly before the murder, and he described seeing a fair-haired man of shabby appearance with a woman who may have been Eddowes. His companions, however, were unable to confirm his description.

  17. Some say they came close to catching the Ripper P.C. Long reported: ....about 2.55am I found a portion of a womans apron which I produced, there appeared blood stains on it one portion was wet lying in a passage leading to the staircases of 108 - 119 model dwelling house. Above it on the wall was written in chalk: ‘ the jews are the men that will not be blamed for nothing...'

  18. Mary Kelly-Victim #5 • The victim was found on November 9th in the morning, when Thomas Bowyer was sent to collect rent money. Inside Mary’s flat was her dead, butchered body.

  19. The Murder of Mary Kelly Mary’s murder was the most horrifying of all the murders. •The victim’s throat was slashed with such force that the knife cut all the way down to the spinal column. •Body was on incline to left side of bed, naked, & badly mutilated. • The breasts were cut off & several long jagged wounds were on arms. •Victim’s face was gashed in multiple directions (nose, cheeks, eyebrows, & ears were partly removed). Lips were cut in several incisions.

  20. The Murder of Mary Kelly •The uterus, kidney, & 1 breast were found under the head. The liver was laid between the feet. • The intestines were located outside of the body on the right side, while the spleen was found outside of the body on the left side. • Skin tissue of abdomen & thighs were on table near body. The Heart had been severed from the body & taken by the killer!!!

  21. The Ripper Letters It is now generally agreed by experts on this case, that none of the letters thought to have been written by the Ripper were in fact actually written by him. A letter dated September 25 & received on the twenty-seventh by the Central News agency was the first to be signed "Jack the Ripper". A postcard post marked October 1st followed. Since it referred to a "double event" the police thought it might be from the killer since it was posted the day after the Ripper killed two women.

  22. Letters contd. The post card also referred to the letter & must have come from the same source as the letter had not been released to the public yet. If the post card had been sent on September 30, the day of the "double event", instead of October 1, the likelihood that it was really written by the murderer would be significantly greater. The police were convinced the letters were the work of a journalist.

  23. Letters (contd.) One other letter was sent by the suspected killer. In mid-October, a small package was sent to the authorities. Inside this parcel was half of a human kidney that the killer claimed he had removed from the 4th victim, Catharine Eddowes. Eddowes suffered from a disease that would deform the kidneys, and the kidney looked deformed (consistent with her diagnosis). However, because DNA wasn’t available, there is no way to know for sure, if it was her kidney. In addition, even if it was Eddowes’s kidney, that wouldn’t prove Jack the Ripper himself, sent the parcel & kidney. to know for sure if the Ripper really did send it. Most of the arguments in favor of it being from Jack have been based on inaccurate information and the myths rather than the facts surrounding the case. However, Eddowes did suffer from Bright's disease and the description of the kidney does match what a Bright's disease kidney would look like.

  24. Suspects Suspect-#1: M.J. Druitt—a barrister turned teacher committed suicide in December 1888. It was argued by the Chief Constable, Sir Melville Macnaghten, that Druitt was the main suspect in the murders. He argued that Druitt was a 41-year-old doctor who committed suicide immediatley after Mary Kelly’s murder and was the most likely to kill the women. However, his theory was not supported by others and he was wrong about some of the details. Druitt was actually a 31 year-old man who killed himself a month after the Kelly murder. He was not a doctor. As of today, most researchers do not believe he committed the murders. Suspect-#2: SeverinKlosowski (aka George Chapman), a multiple wife poisoner, was thought to be the Ripper. However, there was little support for this theory from other officers. Modern profiling rejects Klosowski as the murderer.

  25. Why do the Ripper cases remain unsolved? 1. Its always hard to catch a serial killer. In the 1880’s with primitive technology & no real forensic science, even the basics of criminology (finger printing, blood typing, DNA) are unavailable to the investigators. 2. The Ripper attacked at times when the streets were largely deserted & chose victims who were usually drunk & defenseless. 3. The Ripper attacked swiftly leaving little time for him to be caught & he didn’t get much of the victim’s blood on him, thereby making him hard to detect.

  26. Ed Gein will get you! A historical study of a serial killer

  27. NOW What is a serial killer??? What others do you know of? Do you know of any other famous murders? Go into any bookshop and there are entire shelves devoted to this topic. Why is society fascinated with this? Research a serial killer and construct a table similar to that made for Ed Gein. As a class look at the common traits associated with these people. How could you use this information to catch a killer? Often over the years students from my senior history classes have gone on to become forensic investigators because they liked working with evidence and Historians make good investigators!!!