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By: NN123522. Iron, Steel, and Aluminum. C.1.1. The main source of Iron is Iron Ore. C.1.2. A blast furnace is used “to chemically reduce and physically convert iron oxides into liquid iron called ‘hot metal’.”

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By nn123522

By: NN123522

Iron, Steel, and Aluminum

C 1 1

  • The main source of Iron is Iron Ore.

C 1 2

  • A blast furnace is used “to chemically reduce and physically convert iron oxides into liquid iron called ‘hot metal’.”

  • Raw materials used are raw ores such as Hematite (Fe2O3) or Magnetite (Fe3O4), coke (carbon), and limestone.

  • Summary of the reactions that occur:

  • The coke burns to produce heatC + O2 = CO2

  • The CO2 reacts with more coke to produce carbon monoxideC + CO2 = 2CO

  • The carbon monoxide reduces the iron ore to ironFe2O3 + 3CO = 2Fe + 3CO2

  • Coke also reduces some of the iron ore3C + 2Fe2O3 = 4Fe + 3CO2

C 1 3

  • Basic Oxygen Converter takes the molten iron and scrap and removes impurities. This leads to greater efficiency and quality of steel.

  • Similar to the Bessemer process. A basic oxygen converter involves oxygen, which is, blown into the charge at high velocity causing an increase in temperature in metal bath. The temperature change and turbulence results in metal droplets being carried away from the central oxygen stream, increasing the metal surface area, and the rate of oxidation of impurities in the molten iron. During this process, the oxidation of silicon, manganese and carbon are all exothermic, resulting in an increase in bath temperature.

C 1 4

  • You might have wondered and asked yourself, “What’s an alloy?”

  • Well, that’s an homogeneous mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and a non-metal.

C 1 5

  • Alloying alters the properties of a metal.

  • For example, Iron alloys, have increasing carbon levels which reduce ductility and toughness.

  • Aluminum is a weak and soft metal but by adding other metals, making alloys, the strength can be increased.

C 1 6

  • Heat treatment of steel is used to change the physical and chemical properties of the material.

  • Annealing results in a soft and ductile metal. It is referred to as “stress relieving” the metal.

  • Quenching is used to harden a metal. Quenching a stele too fast can result in cracking but if done correctly, quenching can create metals that are corrosion resistant.

  • Tempering is used to fix brittle metal and allow further ductility.

C 1 7

  • Iron

  • Properties: ductile, malleable, silver-gray metal , dissolves in dilute acids, and has a melting point of 1536 °C.

  • Uses: food containers, family cars, screwdrivers, washing machines, cargo ships, and paper staples. It is also used to make steel.

  • Steel

  • Properties: hard, ductile, contains carbon which alters its strength.

  • Uses in the making of many products, such as, clocks, watches, railroad tracks, kitchen appliances, surgical equipment, etc.

C 1 8

  • Production of Aluminum using alumina (Al2O3) and molten cryolite. Cryolite is a sodium aluminum fluoride mineral. Cryolite is used due to the high melting point of alumina.

  • This is called The Hall-Heroult Process. The cell in which the process occurs is a steel container that is lined with carbon or graphite. It is called the “reduction pot.”

  • An electric current is passed through the alumina and cryolite mixture allowing the chemical reaction to occur. The electric current requires direct current (DC).

C 1 8 contd
C.1.8 Contd.

  • The current flows between a carbon anode, made of petroleum coke and pitch, and a cathode ,formed by the thick carbon or graphite lining of the pot.

  • When the electric current passes it causes the carbon of the anode and the oxygen of the alumina and produces metallic aluminum and carbon dioxide.


  • Information Website

  • Minerals, Rocks and. How is Aluminum Produced? 29 1 2010 <>.

  • Ricketts, John A. How it Works: The Blast Furnace. 29 1 2010 <>.

  • Pizzo, Patrick P. Metals and Alloys. 1997 1 August. 29 1 2010 <>.

  • Industrial Solutions International. Basic Oxygen Steelmaking furnaces. 29 1 2010 <>.

  • Picture Website

  • Sumitomo metals. The power of creations: part 2. 29 1 2010 <>.

  • Basic Oxygen Steelmaking. 29 1 2010 <>.