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NS 220: Nutritional Planning and Management. Unit 7: Meeting Energy Needs. The Basics - Terms. Anthropometrics Basal Metabolic Rate Body Mass Index kcal. Energy Needs. What factors influence our energy needs?. Thermic Effect of Food. 10-15% of total energy needs

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Ns 220 nutritional planning and management

NS 220: Nutritional Planning and Management

Unit 7: Meeting Energy Needs

The basics terms
The Basics - Terms

  • Anthropometrics

  • Basal Metabolic Rate

  • Body Mass Index

  • kcal

Energy needs
Energy Needs

  • What factors influence our energy needs?

Thermic effect of food
Thermic Effect of Food

  • 10-15% of total energy needs

  • Are there any food “myths” you have heard that may be attributed to the thermic effect of food?

Body weight in vs out
Body Weight – In vs. Out

  • One pound of fat = 3500 kcals

  • How many calories do you need to decrease per day in the diet to achieve a one pound loss per week?

  • How does this translate to weight gain?

Energy balance equation
Energy Balance Equation

Energy Input = Energy Output

(or calories in = calories out)

  • Energy Input= Calories from food

  • Energy Output= Metabolism (BMR)

    Physical Activity

    Thermic Effect of Food

Energy imbalance
Energy Imbalance

  • First, calculate your BMI

  • What about body composition? Have you ever had this calculated? By what method?

  • What are the different categories of BMI weight status?

Energy imbalance1
Energy Imbalance

  • Obesity

    • Is it possible to be obese and malnourished?

    • What can be done to decrease weight in an obese individual?

    • What health problems are associated with obesity?

    • Can culture play a role in weight status?

    • What other factors influence weight status?

Body fat and its distribution
Body Fat and Its Distribution

  • Fat Distribution

    • Distribution of body fat may be more critical than the amount

    • Intra-abdominal fat/Central obesity

      • Increased risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, and cancer

      • Common in men and post-menopausal women

  • Waist Circumference

    • Indicator of fat distribution

      • Women greater than 35 inches

      • Men greater than 40 inches

      • (Waist-to-Hip ratio)

        • Women with a Waist to Hip ratio of .80 or greater

        • Men with a Waist to Hip ration of .90 or greater

          • May have an increased risk for health problems.

Chapter 8

Why diets don t work
Why “Diets” Don’t Work

  • Obesity is a chronic disease

    • Treatment requires long-term lifestyle changes (no quick fix).

  • Dieters are misdirected

    • More concerned about weight loss than healthy, active lifestyle.

    • Unrealistic weight expectations.

Fad diets
Fad Diets

  • Usually lack fiber, carbohydrates, selected vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants; deficiencies may exist

  • Emphasizes one or two foods.

  • Severely restricts food choices; rigid eating plans.

  • Temporary solution to weight loss…not long-term.

  • Focus is not on permanent eating, exercise, or behavior changes.

Fad diet
Fad Diet…

Pick a fad diet that’s popular to discuss with the class

Fad diets what to watch out for
Fad Diets- What to Watch Out For

Promote quick weight loss

Limited food selections; rituals

Use of testimonials


Recommend expensive supplements

No permanent lifestyle changes advocated

Critical of the scientific community

Weight loss success
Weight Loss Success

National Weight Control Registry www.nwcr.ws

Investigates characteristics of individuals who have succeeded at long-term weight loss.

45% lost weight on their own; 55% used a program.

98% modified their food intake.

94% increased their activity (walking most reported).


  • Calorie control

    • Portions

    • Eat less overall, but still choose variety of foods

  • Exercise on regular basis; ACSM Position

    • To prevent weight gain: 150-250 min/week

    • Weight loss: 150->250 min/week

    • Weight maintenance after weight loss: >250 min/week

      Donnelly JE, et al.  Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention

      of weight regain for adults.  Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2009; 41:459-471.