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English Absolutism

English Absolutism

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English Absolutism

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  1. English Absolutism

  2. James I • Stuart (not a Tudor) • King of Scotland • Nephew of Elizabeth I • Initially agreed to rule according to English law and customs • Parliament involved • Until…divine right

  3. Tensions with Parliament • Disagreements about money • Lavish lifestyle • Wars • Taxes • Disagreements about foreign policy • James’ solution  dissolve Parliament

  4. Religious Tensions • Puritans wanted: • “purify” the Church of England of Catholic practices • Simpler services • More democratic church with no powerful bishops • James rejected their demands • Chased them out of England

  5. Charles I • Inherits the throne from his father, James I (1625) • Like his father, he ruled as an absolute monarch • Bickered with Parliament • Imprisoned enemies without trial • Ran the nation into further debt

  6. Petition of Right • Debt from: • Super-luxurious lifestyle • War with France • Need of money  called for Parliament to convene • Parliament refused to fork over any money until Charles I signed Petition of Right

  7. Petition of Right • No funds could be borrowed or raised through taxes & tariffs without the explicit approval of Parliament

  8. Petition of Right 2. No free person (Britain had slavery at this time) could be imprisoned without a reason

  9. The Deal • Charles I signed the Petition, thereby agreeing to its terms (and getting his $$) • Did Charles have any intention of keeping his word?

  10. Dissolution of Parliament • Charles immediately broke his word • To avoid a confrontation with Parliament, he dissolved it (would stay dissolved for 12 years) • Now on his own…with no funds from Parliament

  11. Charles’ Budget Cuts • Made peace with enemies (peace is cheaper than war) • Downsized government administration • Innovative tax increases • One goal in mind  rule without Parliament

  12. Charles and Religion • Much like his father, Charles was against the Puritans • Allowed the Archbishop of Canterbury (William Laud) to freely take any measures to stifle the Puritans

  13. Puritans Under Charles I • Forbidden to publish or preach • Scottish Puritans were forced to use the Church of England’s prayer books, rituals, hierarchy, etc • Rebellion occurred, thus forcing Charles to reconvene Parliament

  14. Twelve Years to Stew • Parliament had 12 years to stew and were ready to show Charles no mercy • Refused Charles any money until he addressed a very long list of complaints • What do you think Charles did??

  15. Buh-Bye Parliament • Charles refused their demands and dismissed them (known as “The Short Parliament”) • Still, he was without money • Reconvened Parliament again, but this time agreed to their demands

  16. Parliament’s Demands • Illegal to raise taxes without Parliament okay • William Laud – impeached & executed • Charles’ centralized bureaucracy – abolished • Law that only Parliament could dismiss itself • Law that Parliament had to meet every 3 years

  17. Rebellion in Ireland • Religious radicals in Ireland rebelled • Charles wanted funds for an army to go in • Parliament did not trust Charles with an army • Proposal from radicals in Parliament – the army should be under Parliament’s control

  18. One Angry King • Charles not very happy about this • Stormed Parliament with his own army • Bold, yet foolish move • Parliament issued Militia Ordinance which officially declared the army under Parliament’s control • The result????

  19. The English Civil War

  20. Cavaliers & Roundheads • Cavaliers = Supporters of King Charles I • Wealthy nobles • Wore plumed hats • Fashionably long hair • Well trained in dueling & warfare • Expected a quick win

  21. Cavaliers & Roundheads • Roundheads = Supporters of Parliament • Country gentry, town- dwelling manufacturers, & Puritan clergy • Called Roundheads b/c of their hair style • Underdogs • Leader – Oliver Cromwell

  22. Oliver Cromwell • Puritan, gentry, military genius • Organized “New Model Army” into a skilled force • Defeated Cavaliers • Became “Lord Protectorate” after Civil War

  23. The Execution of a King • Charles I was put on trial • Found guilty • Sentenced to death as a “tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy”

  24. Life Under Puritan Rule • After Charles I’s execution, House of Commons abolished : • The monarchy • The House of Lords • The Church of England

  25. England a Republic? • England declared republic • Not all agree – Charles II is the heir • Rebellions broke out (Ireland) • Oliver Cromwell • crushed them • persecuted Catholics • exiled Catholics to remote parts of Ireland

  26. End of the Commonwealth • After Cromwell’s death (1658) Puritans lost control of England • New Parliament invited Charles II back as King • Charles II met with cheering crowds

  27. Charles II • Popular ruler • “Man-crush” on Louis XIV (idolized him) • Tolerant of various religions • Accepted Petition of Right (learned from his Daddy’s mistakes!)

  28. James II • Inherits the throne • Brother of Charles II • Flaunted his Catholic faith • Many feared he would restore Catholicism

  29. William & Mary • Parliament invited James’ Protestant daughter Mary II & her Dutch Protestant husband William of Orange to the throne

  30. The Glorious Revolution • William & Mary arrived with an army • No need – James II fled to France • Parliament sets up a Limited Monarchy via a Bill of Rights • Also affirmed habeas corpus (no person could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime) • Radical concept in the Age of Absolutism…

  31. Homework • Read Primary Source document, “Charles I on the Scaffold” and answer the questions on the back