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Chapter 2 New World Experiments

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  1. Chapter 2New World Experiments

  2. What defines a colonist of the New World • Escaping religious persecution • Search for a better life • A better life for your family • Young with no attachments seeking adventure • Looking for financial profit. • Searching for New opportunities

  3. England during the period • Crowded (population expanded from 3.5 million to 5 million) • Lack of food • High prices • “Beware the walking poor” claim the rich

  4. England’s hope in the New World • When Elizabeth came to the throne there was a strong wish to build colonies but there was one main problem. • They needed money. The Solution? • Joint Stock Company • Joint Stock Company: A business organization in which scores of people could invest without fear of bankruptcy.

  5. England’s first Colony • 1606 James issues the first Virginia Charter • The Goal was to establish plantations in Virginia. • 1606 the Susan Constant and GodSpeed set sail. Who made up the crew? • 104 men and boys

  6. Jamestown was successful in……? • Without consulting residents colony leaders selected a location thirty miles south of the James river. • The low lying ground water was disease ridden . • The colonists working in James town were to adjusted to a full days work. • While some tirelessly farmed others simply sat around. • Other men instead of assisting in the work sought out their own interests. • During this time starvation was always an issue.

  7. Enter John Smith • Not that one • This one

  8. What is the Big deal about John Smith? • Fought with Hungarians against the Turks. • Instituted a tough military system to the village. • No one had any sort of special privilege • Began trade with Natives for food. • Mapped the Chesapeake Bay area. • This leads to a redrawing of the charter where decisions rested on the company. • Eventually the colony would fall upon poor leadership food became problem and a harsh winter would lead to cannibalism

  9. The one good thing about Virginia • Though Jamestown had hit hard times they still had a way of paying investors. • Tobacco had the potential of being a money making crop • Once John Rolfe arrived the colony was able to produce a marketable form of the crop.

  10. Virginia develops a governing body • With the success of tobacco the company sponsored Edwin Sandy’s to bring sweeping reforms to the colony. • Sandy’s goal was to get investors to develop their own estates. • Sandy's developed the head right system. A 50 acre was given to those who paid for their voyage along with a small annul fee. An additional head right was given for brining over more people. • From this the House of Burgesses is born which was a elective representative assembly.

  11. Early Virginian life In the new colony women were outnumbered by men. Mortality rate was low. Eventually the colony began to fall apart and people wanted to leave the colony with what they had Eventually the colony was taken back over by the crown.

  12. Corruption and the growth of Virginia • After changes made by Sandys we begin to see Virginia to grow rapidly. • Again the people coming are generally single young males. To get to the new world they would agree to serve a master for a number of years in exchange for their passage over to the colony. • These men were known as indentured servants and were normally promised some land once they received freedom.

  13. Maryland The colony was originally the idea of the first Lord Baltimore or Calvert. Calvert came out as a catholic, which was frowned upon in the English Society. Calvert wanted to build a refuge for oppressed Catholics. Cecilious the second Lord Baltimore would take over and make the dream a reality.

  14. The Pilgrims • Cross the Atlantic searching fro religious freedom. • They were mostly English farmers. • They originally moved to the Netherlands because they felt the church of England retained too much of the Catholic faith • The original deal they made with investors no longer mattered since the landed in New England. • The Mayflower Compact then comes into being to preserve the struggling colony. • They would end up being plagued by hunger and disease.

  15. The Puritans Men and Women looking for institutional changes in a means to fulfill scripture. Products of the reformation they accepted Calvinist ideals. Originally they attempted to purify the church of England. They would go against James and Charles the first. They would be at the losing end of this battle.

  16. John Winthrop Winthrop with a group the politically connected looked towards establishing a colony due to their lack of faith in England’s future. Winthrop would depart in 1630. Winthrop’s dream was to be a city on a hill. A city that was a demonstration of what people who follow the Christian faith can build.

  17. Massachusetts the City on the Hill Unlike most colonists the puritans moved to new world in nuclear families. By most accounts they far more successful than most colonists. A healthy climate and clean water would account for this. As well as a common sense of community. Congregationalism is formed. The system revolved around village churches outside of interference.

  18. Handling Dissent The developed society in Massachusetts did not have room for two people. Roger Williams and Ann Hutchinson He would eventually found Rhode Island. William wanted separation of church and state, and better realtions with the natives Ann’s problem She gossiped with the other ladies, about the ministers. After investigation she would join Roger Williams

  19. Rhode Island Rhode Island became a place of greater religious tolerance and relations with Natives. Known for farming and fishing.

  20. Outcropping from the Massachusetts bay A few colonies came out of the Massachusetts bay area. New York was an English and later British crown territory that originally included all of the present U.S. states of New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Vermont, along with inland portions of Connecticut, Massachusetts and Maine, New Hampshire Connecticut was originally made up of three small territories. New Haven would eventually merge with Connecticut.

  21. Quakers Known as the founders of Pennsylvania. One man’s interpretation is as good the next. They practiced humility and preached conversion.

  22. Say Hello to William Penn He was awarded the property in the new world from Charles the second. Penn guaranteed freedom from persecution, no taxation without representation, and due process law. Used the ideas of James Harrington. This colony would attract more than just Quakers.

  23. Carolina’s Originally given to those who had been loyal to English Royalty during the Civil War. The founder Anthony Ashly Cooper learned from Virginia and did not look for instant wealth. They charged rent for those who lived in the colony, and selected ideal citizens to live in the colony. Major product Rice: Though they also produced Tobacco, indigo, furs. First colonists came mostly from Barbados.

  24. The original Thirteen colonies Virgina 1607 Massachusetts 1620 New Hampshire 1623 Maryland 1634 Connecticut 1635 Rhode Island 1636 Delaware 1638 North Carolina 1653 South Carolina 1663 New Jersey 1664 New York 1664 Pennsylvania 1682 Georgia 1732