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Health, Safety and Nutrition

Health, Safety and Nutrition

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Health, Safety and Nutrition

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  1. Health, Safety and Nutrition Module 1: A Healthy Environment

  2. What does “Health” mean to you?

  3. Characteristics of a healthy environment that promote good health practices include: • clean work and play areas. • proper Hygiene practices. • implementation and routine practice of a written health policy.

  4. Key Point Establishing and following a written policy is an effective way of maintaining a safe and healthy child care program.

  5. Key Point The three A’s of a healthy child are: Appetite, Appearance and Activity.

  6. Appetite • Can eat a substantial amount of food at times • Will consume a variety of foods • Is interested in eating • Appears content after meals and snacks

  7. Appearance • Has clear, bright eyes • Has clear skin • Has well-developed muscles • Gains steadily in height and body weight

  8. Activity • Has plenty of energy • Is alert • Sleeps soundly • Has few aches and pains

  9. The following are also taken into consideration when evaluating a child’s health: • Emotional health-reflect happy, cheerful feelings • Social health-friendly most of the time, interacts w/other children, & enjoys quiet activities that require concentration • Mental health-is interested in new experiences & is usually confident & adaptable

  10. Daily Health Checks Daily health checks are a good way of preventing, identifying, and controlling illness in a child care environment.

  11. Daily Health Checks • Behavior • Face and Body • Other signs: • fever • vomiting • bowel movement changes • pain • skin marks

  12. It is important to remember that children’s health records are confidential.

  13. How Can I Tell if a Child is Sick? • Identify possible signs – check for fever (sense of touch) • Recommended way of taking temperature: digital thermometer with a disposable sheath. • Fever: 100 degrees Fahrenheit under the arm or 101 degrees Fahrenheit orally.

  14. “If You Could Just Help Me Out This Once” (story read by teacher)

  15. Knowing the signs of illness in children is very important, but responding quickly to these signs is equally important. Depending upon the type and severity of the symptom, a caregiver may do one or more of these things: 1. Call the parents, and if necessary, suggest to the parents that the child needs medical attention. 2. Call 911. 3. Isolate the child until parents and/or paramedics arrive. 4. Watch the child closely; notify and be ready to discuss your observations with parents and/or paramedics.

  16. Dehydration It is very important to watch for signs of dehydration when a child in your care suffers from fever, diarrhea, or vomiting. Watch for the following signs: • Dry to very dry mouth • Little to no tears when crying • Less active than usual, or very fussy • Infant will wet less than 6 diapers a day, a child will make fewer trips to the restroom than he normally does

  17. Dehydration If dehydration is severe, the following will occur: • Eyes are sunken • Hands and feet are cool and blotchy • Pulse may seem weak and fast • Child will not urinate for hours

  18. Dehydration The steps to prevent dehydration are dependent on the child’s symptoms, and can include: • For mild diarrhea, do not give milk; it has a high concentration of minerals and salt which could be dangerous to a child with diarrhea. • For vomiting, stop giving solid food, and give water at 30 to 60 minute intervals. • For both diarrhea and vomiting, stop the child’s normal diet and give electrolytes. • Do not give a child sports drinks or any other similar drink made for adults.

  19. Heat Exhaustion Occurs when someone who is not used to very hot weather does not get enough liquid and salt. The condition is caused by excessive sweating. The person’s skin becomes pale and clammy, and the person feels sick, dizzy, and/or faint. Pulse rate and breathing become rapid, and a headache or muscle cramps may develop. Take action! 1. Lay the person down in a cool, quiet place, with feet raised a little. 2. Loosen any tight clothing and supply water to drink. 3. Add 1 teaspoon of salt to each quart of water.

  20. Heat Stroke Occurs because of prolonged exposure to very hot conditions. The mechanism in the brain that regulates body temperature stops functioning, and the body’s temperature rapidly rises to 104 degrees Fahrenheit. The person becomes flushed, with hot, dry skin and a strong, rapid pulse. He/she quickly becomes confused or unconscious. Here’s what to do if you observe these conditions: 1. Anyone who has heat stroke should receive medical attention. If you suspect heatstroke, call 911. While waiting for emergency Medical Services (EMS) to arrive: 2. Remove clothing and wrap the person in a cold wet sheet, or sponge with cold or tepid water. 3. Fan the person by hand, with an electric fan, or with a hairdryer set to cold. 4. When his or her temperature drops to 101 degrees Fahrenheit, place the person in the recovery position. 5. Cover the person with a dry sheet and continue to fan. If his or her temperature rises again, repeat the cooling procedure. A caregiver should know the signs of illness in children and be prepared to take appropriate action.

  21. Key Point It is important to recognize and respond appropriately to signs of illness in the children in your care, both for their well-being and for the prevention of illness and disease within your program

  22. What is a Communicable Disease? • A communicable disease is one that can be spread from one person to another. • This usually results from the interaction between people, the environment, and germs

  23. There are 4 types of germs: - bacteria - virus - fungi - parasites

  24. Bacteria • Small organisms seen with an ordinary microscope • Can cause strep throat, impetigo, pinkeye, and some pneumonia • Antibiotics help stop growth

  25. Virus • Smaller than bacteria • Grow only in living cells • Can cause colds, chicken pox, measles, German measles, mumps • Antibiotics have NO effect • Rest is the best action; body fights better when rested • Vaccines against common ones are available

  26. Fungi • Grow best in warm, moist places • Can cause athlete’s foot and ringworm • Effective medication available • Medications work best when conditions that are favorable to fungal growth are removed

  27. Parasites • Organisms that live on or in animals and people • Common examples include pinworms, roundworms, head lice • Effective medications are available for most

  28. Ways Illnesses/Diseases are Transmitted • Respiratory- through nasal/throat discharges (common cold, flu, strep, chicken pox) • Fecal/Oral- through bowel movement, soiled hands or objects in mouth (salmonella, Hepatitis A) • Direct Contact- contact with infected area or infested body area (impetigo, ringworm, lice, scabies) • Blood borne- through blood contact (HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis B and C)

  29. Serious Communicable Diseases • Haemophilus Influenzae B (HIB) • Hepatitis B/C • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

  30. Haemophilus Influenzae B (HIB) • Is an infection that can lead to other conditions which can cause secondary infections in many areas of the body, including meningitis, pneumonia, epiglottis infection. • Does not cause the flu • Is caused by a germ that spreads through coughing & sneezing; common in children who are in close contact with one another. • Since medical treatment for HIB is difficult, vaccination is important. • 1 in 4 children who develop meningitis due to HIB suffer from mental retardation, permanent hearing damage or death. • Epiglottis due to HIB occurs most often in children 2 to 4 years of age.

  31. Hepatitis B • Is an infection of the liver • It is vaccine-preventable with 3 doses of Hepatitis vaccines usually given during the first 3 months of life. • Is most commonly spread from mother to infant at birth; or by transmission include IV drug use using contaminated needles; sexual intercourse; & exposure of open wounds or mucous membranes to contaminated blood. • Symptoms: fatigue, loss of appetite, jaundice, dark urine, light stools, nausea, vomiting, & abdominal pain. • A serious infection in which premature death from liver cancer occurs in 15%-25% of persons with chronic infection. • A person who has no symptoms is still infectious to others. Hepatitis C • Disease of the liver • No vaccine available • Spread from infected mother to baby during birth; IV drug use; blood transfusion -Same symptoms as above.

  32. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) • Virus that causes an increasing loss of immune function that results in the body becoming unable to fight off infections. • Most commonly spread by sharing contaminated needles for IV drug use, sexual intercourse, exposure to infected blood through blood transfusion, and from pregnant woman to fetus. • Symptoms in children: failure to grow & gain weight; constant diarrhea without cause; enlarged liver & spleen; swollen lymph glands; constant thrush and Candida; pneumonia & other bacterial, viral, fungal & parasitic infections. • Late stage of HIV is called Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) • Many children are infected with HIV for years without developing symptoms. • Once infected, a person becomes potentially infectious to others for life.

  33. Most Common Childhood Illnesses • Chicken pox • Common cold • Flu • Diarrhea related diseases • Conjunctivitis • Giardiasis • Allergic reactions/anaphylaxis • RSV (Respiratory Synctial Virus) • Lice

  34. Chicken Pox • Slight fever • Fine blisters, first on scalp, then on face and body

  35. Chicken Pox

  36. Common Cold • Runny nose • Watery eyes • Chills • Malaise (ill feeling) • Usually no fever • Lethargic (sluggish)

  37. Common Cold

  38. Flu (Review the information on the Center for Disease Control (CDC) website ( regarding flu pandemic in child care, frequently.) • High fever • Chills • Headache • Sore throat • Muscle pain • Sneezing • Can develop chest pain and cough

  39. Diarrhea-Related Disease • Loose or watery stools • Nausea • Vomiting • Stomachache • Headache • Fever

  40. Conjunctivitis (Eye Infection; Pink eye) • Red eye or eyes • Discharge from one or both eyes • Crusted lid or lids

  41. Pink Eye

  42. Giardiasis • Parasite found in the stools • Diarrhea, bloating, abdominal cramps • Weight loss and weakness

  43. Allergic Reactions/Anaphylaxis • Rashes • Swelling of Throat • Difficulty breathing

  44. RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus) • Wheezing and cough • Blue color around lips • Rapid breathing

  45. Lice • Itchy scalp • Nits (eggs) • Small, red bumps or sores from scratching

  46. Head Lice

  47. Ringworm • Flat, spreading scaly, ring-shaped spots • Reddish in color and elevated • Fungi that grows easily on moist, warm surfaces

  48. Ringworm

  49. Key Point Responding in a correct and timely manner when a child displays a symptom or symptoms of a communicable disease is an excellent way of preventing communicable diseases in a child care program.

  50. Preventing Communicable Disease… There are 3 main points to follow…