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Tsunami Early Warning System: SOPs and Communication Strategies Initiatives by Pakistan Meteorological Department presenter Zahid Rafi Dated: 08 Oct, 2009 Conference on working together for disaster risk reduction. Contents. Mechanism of tsunami generation and propagation

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Tsunami Early Warning System:SOPs and Communication StrategiesInitiatives byPakistan Meteorological DepartmentpresenterZahid RafiDated: 08 Oct, 2009Conference on working together for disaster risk reduction


  • Mechanism of tsunami generation and propagation

  • Pakistan tsunami hazards and risk

  • Establishment of Seismic Monitoring Network

  • Development of tsunami warning centers.

  • End To End tsunami warning and emergency response.

  • Timeline and SOPs for TWCs.

  • Tsunami warning systems and support tools

Tsunami generation mechanism and propagation

  • Large earthquakes along subduction zones in sea can generate tsunami

  • These subduction zones are along boundaries of tectonic plates

  • Largest earthquakes have taken place along these subduction zones.

  • A general criteria for tsunami generation is:


    Depth < 50km

Tectonic Plates and Subduction zones

Well known subduction zone

Magnitude > 8.5

Sumatra - Andaman zone

History of tsunami along indo pak coast line
History of tsunami along Indo-Pak Coast line

  • November 326 BC earthquake near the Indus delta /Kutch region that set off massive sea waves in the Arabian Sea

  • The arrival of Vascude Gama’s in 1524 coincided with a violent sea quake and tsunami that caused alarm at Debul and Portuguese port.

  • 16 June 1819 Rann of Kuchch earthquake

    M 7.7, A tsunami from Arabian sea Surged across the Rann of Kuch.

  • 1845 June 19, India, Kutch. “The sea rolled up the Koree

  • In Arabian Sea Magnitude 8.2 earthquake (Makran Earthquake (1945)caused a tsunami along coastal areas of Pakistan and India.

    Over 4000 deaths estimated

Up Gradation and StrengtheningofSeismic Monitoring Network:A basic ComponentforTsunami Early Warning System

Projects for strengthening of tsunami early warning system supported by unesco ioc
Projects for StrengtheningofTsunami Early Warning SystemSupported by UNESCO/IOC

Project Details

  • Three Tide Gauge Systems for Ormara, Gwadar and Keti Bandar

  • Satellite Communication System for data transmission

  • Establishment of Broadcast Centre for Mass Media at PMD Islamabad.

  • Data Acquisition and Analysis System at central station Karachi.

  • Development of Area Specific Tsunami propagation and inundation model.

  • Soft Component:

    Tsunami and coast disaster risk reduction and preparedness at the community level.

Tsunami hazard map for pakistan supported by asian disaster reduction centre adrc japan

Tsunami Hazard Map for PakistanSupported by Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC), Japan


Preparation of Tsunami Hazard Map

Community Risk Awareness program

To enhance the capacity to train local experts.

To identify the problems and improve the tsunami warning system

Seiscomp3 system global earthquake monitoring processing analysis
SeisComP3 SystemGlobal: Earthquake: Monitoring: Processing: Analysis

Guitar decision making tool
GUITAR(Decision Making Tool)

Strategy standard operating procedure for issuance of tsunami warning
Strategy: Standard Operating Procedure forIssuance of Tsunami warning





Pab & Ornach faults

Kirther Ranges

Allah Band

Extended portion of compression zone

Murray Ridge

The study area was divided into 19 zones in which 1 to 15 are seismic zones, 16 to 18 are

faults zones and zone 19 is exclusively for Rann of Kachch (Allah Band fault)

Makran Subduction zone

Height (m)

Time (S)

Height (m)

Time (S)

Height (m)

Time (S)

Height (m)

Time (S)