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FLOUR PowerPoint Presentation

FLOUR

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FLOUR

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  1. FLOUR BATTERS AND DOUGHS

  2. CLASSIFICATIONS • Classified by type of wheat or intended use • Vary by color of kernel: white or red • Protein – starch structure and body: hard or soft • Season – spring or winter time of planting

  3. HARD WHEAT • High level of protein • Strong bonds between protein and starch molecules • Granules sometimes cracked • Particles feel gritty • Breads with good volume

  4. SOFT WHEAT • Low protein levels • Weak bonds between protein and starch molecules • Starch granules rounded and free of cracks • Flours feel soft and powdery • Breads with low volume

  5. FORMATION OF GLUTEN COMPLEX

  6. GLIADINS • Group of proteins – globular shapes • Give dough fluid and sticky characteristics • High concentration of disulfide bonds  stretchiness to gluten • Allow rising when leavening gases expand • Rich in amino acids glutamine and proline

  7. GLUTENINS • Several large proteins • Give elasticity to dough because of linear proteins • Rye bread thick and short glutenins = lack of elasticity in rye bread

  8. GLUTEN • Gliadins + Glutenins = gluten • Developed by : hydration and manipulation • Gluten – three dimensional complex of hydrated proteins in which starch grains are embedded

  9. HYDRATION • Wets starch granules • Protein fibrils emerge from fractured endosperm cells • Grains of starch adhere to fibrils • Fibrils form network of gluten • Dough stiff and inelastic • Add more water  increases elasticity and mobility • Hydrated starch contributes to plasticity of dough – property of solids allows them to hold shape

  10. MANIPULATION • Converts hydrated particles into dough • Strips away hydrated layers • Changes from a sticky mass to smooth appearance • Protein molecules slide past one another to form bonds between molecules • Too vigorous stretching  break strands of gluten  lumpy dough

  11. LIMITING GLUTEN DEVELOPMENT • Fat – interferes with gluten formation by coating the strands, shortens length of strands (shortening) • Sugar – competes for water

  12. FUNCTIONS OF GLUTEN • Responsible for viscoelastic properties of dough • Permits dough to be formed into a variety of shapes • Responsible for gas retention • Provides structure to baked goods

  13. BLEACHING • Unbleached – yellow due to carotenoids (xanthophyll) • Additive – bleaching agents that oxidize the carotenoids • Unbleached or freshly milled flour produces bread of poor volume and coarse texture • Label if bleached • Allowed to mature or use chemicals to mature

  14. TYPES OF FLOUR

  15. WHOLE WHEAT • Graham flour or entire wheat – other names • From cleaned whole wheat • High in fat, fiber, protein

  16. BREAD FLOURS • Fairly high in protein • Blends of spring and hard winter wheat • Granular to touch • Slightly off-white • Used for products leavened with yeast

  17. ALL-PURPOSE • Blend of hard and soft wheats • Protein content of 10-11% • Lower in strength, lighter in color then bread • Protein content too high for cakes • Can be used for cookies, baked goods

  18. PASTRY FLOUR • Soft wheat • Fairly low in protein • Finely milled • Suitable for baked products other than bread

  19. CAKE FLOUR • Soft wheat – very low protein • Very fine in texture • Bleaching agents to soften and mellow proteins • Cake products

  20. OTHER FLOURS • Rye – gluten formation limited, bread small and compact due to gliadins • Cornmeal – little capacity for retaining gases and forming an elastic dough, no gluten properties • Soy flour-high protein but no gluten characteristics • Self-rising – add sodium bicarbonate, acid reacting substances, and salt • Instant- blending – does not pack and blends easily in cold water, moistened and dried

  21. MISCELLANEOUS FLOUR • Important because of gluten intolerance or celiac disease • Buckwheat flour • Rice flour • Amaranth flour • Almond flour

  22. BATTERS AND DOUGHS • Batter – flour mixtures with enough liquid to be beaten or stirred can be pour batters or drop batters • Dough – less liquid proportion to flour than batters can be handled or kneaded • Soft or stiff dough

  23. FUNCTIONS OF INGREDIENTS IN BATTERS AND DOUGHS

  24. FLOUR • Provides structure • Source of fermentable sugar • Gluten potential allows for leavening in expansion of yeast doughs

  25. LIQUIDS • Hydrate flour for gluten development and gelatinization of starch (forms texture of crumb) • Solvent for dissolving ingredients such as leavening agent, salt, sugar • Leavening agent by producing steam • Milk supplies protein and sugar for Maillard reaction

  26. FAT • Tenderize by coating flour proteins physically interferes with development of protein • Shorten gluten strands create dough layers • Incorporate air • Prevent staling • Oils – more tender, mealy, crumbly – covers larger surface than solid fat • Saturated fats – flaky crust, many layers • Margarine, butter – some water less effective in shortening ability • Refrigerated fats – more flakiness

  27. EGGS • Nutritive value • Color • Flavor • Structure – coagulate with heat, beating or change in pH • Leavening – beating incorporates air • Emulsifiers – distribute fat in batter • Elasticity to allow for gas expansion

  28. SUGAR • Flavor • Contributes to tenderness – competes for water • Elevates temperature for starch gelatinization, flour and eggs coagulate • Water retaining properties • Fermentable

  29. SALT • Flavor • Controls growth of yeast cells – necessary component of yeast products • Competes for water • No salt = rapid yeast development, collapsible, extremely porous structure