microbial biotechnology products from microorganisms n.
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Microbial Biotechnology Products from Microorganisms
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  1. LECTURE 12: Microbial BiotechnologyProducts from Microorganisms Biotechnology; 3 Credit hours Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB) National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)

  2. Products from Microorganisms • A number of commercially important compounds are produced from microorganism by biotechnology. That includes; • Metabolites • Enzymes • Antibiotics • Natural Rubber • Fuels • Plastics

  3. 1. Metabolites • Two types of metabolites are produced by microbial cell • Primary metabolite • Secondary metabolite Primary metabolite • They are produced during the organism growth phase. • These compound are essential to an organism metabolism and can be intermediate metabolite or end products

  4. Metabolites Cont.'s Secondary Metabolites • They are derived from primary metabolites or the intermediates of primary metabolites • They are characteristically produced quite late in the growth cycle • They are not essential for the cell growth or function • Their specific functions are unknown, these compound probably give the organism selective advantage against its competitors in its natural environment

  5. Metabolites Cont.'s

  6. 2. Enzymes • Enzymes isolated from microorganism and fungi have applications in the production of food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and detergents • High fructose corn syrup by Bacillus amyloliquefaciensfor β-amylase, Aspergillusnigerfor glucoamylase and Arthrobacter sp. For glucose isomerase

  7. Enzymes Cont.’s

  8. Enzymes Cont.’s • Recombinant DNA technology provides way to mass produce industrially important enzymes • How??? • The search for new microorganism and enzymes is going on • Less than 1% of the world’s microorganism have been cultured and characterized • Hence they represent an untapped gold mine

  9. Enzymes Cont.’s • Microbes have adapted to practically every habitat, they have evolved complex biochemical pathways • Scientist are discovering new enzymes from microorganism, extremophiles, as well as those found in wastewater that may be applicable to a variety of industrial processes • Once enzyme and its application identified, it can be improved for enhanced catalytic properties, modified substrate recognition through genetic engineering

  10. 3. Antibiotics • Antibiotics are small metabolites with antimicrobial activity; produced by Gram +ve, G–ve and fungi • Their role in nature is to enable the antibiotic producer to effectively compete for resources in the environment by killing or inhibiting the growth of competitor microorganism

  11. Antibiotics Cont.’s

  12. Antibiotics Cont.’s • First antibiotic used was penicillin, discovered in 1929 by Alexder Fleming • Antimicrobial drugs act is different ways by • Disrupting the plasma membrane • Inhibiting cell wall synthesis • Inhibiting protein synthesis; translation • Inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis and replication • Inhibiting synthesis of important metabolites; folic acid etc.