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boron a nd boron in turkey


University of Wroclaw




A low-abundance element in both the solar systemandthe Earth's crust, boron is concentrated on Earth by the water-solubility of its more common naturally-occurring compounds, the borate minerals.


Industrially, very pure isolated boron is produced with difficulty, as boron tends to form refractory materials containing small amounts of carbon or other elements.


Boron is used mainly not as the element boron, but as compounds of boric oxide (B2O3)and boric acid (H3BO3).Most people have never seen elemental boron.

in general their applications after refining and end products are wider than crude ones
In general, their applications after refining and end-products are wider than crude ones.

Essential micronutrientforall plant

detergents and soaps
Detergents andSoaps

Act as pH bufferSoften the Washing waterEnhance the solubility of other ingredientsAct as a gentle but powerful bleaching agentAnti-bacterial properties eliminate micro organisms.

ceramic glazes and enamel frits
Ceramic Glazes and Enamel Frits

Provide good fluxing propertiesProvide a good base for dissolving colouring agents.

insulation fibreglass
Insulation Fibreglass

Reduce the temperature at which fibres are formed.Improve the durability of the glass fibresReduce the viscositry of the molten glass.Increase the biosolubility of the glass fibres.

timber preservation
Timber Preservation

Prevent and control the spread of bacteria.Inhibit corrosion.Act as flame retardant

flame retardants
Flame Retardants

Enhance the performance of alumina trihydrateEffective as flame retardants

nuclear power stations
Nuclear Power Stations

Absorb thermal neutronsUsed to control nuclear reactionUsed in nuclear shielding.

cosmetics and medicine
Cosmetics and Medicine

Neutralize fatty acid.Act as emulsifiers in certain creamsGive mild antiseptic properties.


Used as cover fluxesDissolve and remove un wanted metal oxides as slag.


GlassMagnetsAutomobile airbagsPhotographyFuelsOptical fibresAdhesives

Boron does not appear on Earth in elemental form but is found combined in borax, boric acid, colemanite, kernite, ulexiteandborates.

They are both found in the Mojave Desert of California, but the largest borax deposits are in Central and Western Turkeyincluding the provinces of Eskişehir, Kütahya and Balıkesir.


The Turkish borate deposits in Western Anatoliaare located in five main districts: Bigadiç, Kestelek, Sultançayır, Emet and Kirka.

They formed in a lacustrine environment during periods of calc-alkaline volcanic activity in the Neogene.

There are differences between the different districts, but the borates are all generally enclosed withinlimestones and clays and are interbedded with layers of volcanic ash, limestone, marl and clays.

AtKirkathis volcanosedimentary sequence lies unconformably on Paleozoic metamorphics, Mesozoic ophioliltes and Eocene limestones.

Schematic stratigraphic section of Kirka borate deposit.

1. volcanic rocks (basalts, andesites and ryholites)2. cherty limestone3. marl and claystone4. lignite bands5.borate zone6. limestone7. sandstone and conglomerate8. basement complex: ophiolite, marble, schist 9. tuff10. unconformity


The main boron minerals are borax, colemanite, and ulexite, with the proportions of these minerals varying between the deposits. A large number of other borate minerals are found in the deposits, including pandermite, inyoite, meyerhofferite, tincalconite, kernite, hydroboracite, inderite, inderborite, kurnakovite, terrugite, veatchite-A, and tunnelite.


The boronin the deposites is assumed to be derived from leaching of the surrounding rocks by geothermal activity associated with local volcanism.

the borates then formed when the spring waters evaporated after flowing into shallow playa lakes
The borates then formed when the spring waters evaporated after flowing into shallow playa lakes.
turkey has about 72 of the world boron reserves and it is one of the biggest producer in the world
Turkey has about 72% of the world boron reserves, and it is one of the biggest producer in the world.
therefore the operation of boron has primary importance among the other mining operations in turkey
Therefore the operation of boron has primary importance among the other mining operations in Turkey.

In order to utilize mining resources more effectively, the boron operation of Turkey has been transferred to Eti Mine by law and it consists the main activities of Eti Mine


It has been operating since 1967 in Bandırma county of Balıkesir. In order to transform boron minerals into high value added boron products, Borax Decahydrate, Borax Pentahydrate, BoricAcid, Sodium Perborate, (tetra+mono) and Boron Oxide are produced in the plant’s facilities and most of the production is exported. Besides, Sulphuric Acid is produced in 240.000tons/year capacity Sulphuric Acid Plant.The products of the other Boron Works are exported using the loading facilities present in Bandırma Boron and Acid Plants Works.


It is located in Kırka area of Seyitgazi county of Eskişehir. Concentrated tincal production in the plant where construction operations began in 1970, started in 1975 which is followed by theproduction of high value added boron products in the Boron Derivatives Plant in 1984.Raw tincal ore, excavated in the plant’s open pitmine, has been transformed into refined products (Etibor-48) in the plant’s facilities with 480.000 ton annual production capacity.


It has been active since 1958 in Emet county of Kütahya. In the open pit mines of Hisarcık and Espey, colemanite ore production with 28-30%B203 grade is 1.000.000 tons/year. In order to transform the ore into the refined boron products, Boric Acid is produced in the facilities with 100.000 tons annual capacity.


It is located in the Bigadiç county of Balıkesir. The plant where production activities began in 1976, has three open pit mines from which 800.000 tons/yearUlexite and Colemanite ores with 29-31% grade are produced.The raw ore mined from the plant’s own mines has been enriched into concentrated colemanite and concentrated ulexite in the 650.000 tons/year capacity concentrator facilites since 1980 and grinded into ground colemanite and ground ulexite in the 90.000 tons/year capacity grindingfacility since 1998.


It is situated in Kestelek village of Kemalpaşa county of Bursa province. Raw colemanite ore production in the plant’s open pit mine is 200.000 tons/year with 29%B203 grade. The produced ore is enriched in the 100.000 tons/year concentrator facility into concentrated colemanite.

eti mine and its position in boron market
Eti Mine and Its Position in Boron Market


Eti Maden has 67% of the world boron reserve with its 883 million tonsB203boron reserve (This ratio is about 72% if approximate 102 million tonsB203 reserve of Satimola boron deposits located in Kazakhstan is not taken into account).



University of Wroclaw


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