Exchange 2007 architecture and deployment
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Exchange 2007 Architecture and Deployment. Jim McBee Agenda. Messaging Challenges 64-bit Exchange Architecture Server Roles High Availability Upgrading to Exchange 2007 Summary. Info Worker Situation. IT Pro Situation

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Exchange 2007 architecture and deployment

Exchange 2007 Architecture and Deployment

Jim McBee


  • Messaging Challenges

  • 64-bit Exchange Architecture

  • Server Roles

  • High Availability

  • Upgrading to Exchange 2007

  • Summary

Exchange 2007 themes

Info Worker Situation

IT Pro Situation

  • E-mail is mission-critical

  • E-mail systems too complex/ expensive

  • Management tasks tedious, not automated

Org-wide Situation

  • Security the top concern

  • Spam and viruses compromise the e-mail experience

  • Regulatory compliance critical in many industries

  • Users want easy access to all their communications

  • Mobile devices are increasingly common

  • Calendaring is frustrating

Built-In Protection




Exchange 2007 Themes

Why upgrade to exchange 2007
Why upgrade to Exchange 2007?

More scalable

Greatly improved OWA

Consistent scripting interface

Auto-discovery for Outlook 2007

Customizable over-quota and NDR messages

Per-Recipient Journaling

Schedule-able OOF

Local Continuous Replication

Clustered Continuous Replication

Message routing based on Active Directory sites

No more Administrative Groups!

Restore databases to any server

Unified messaging (voice mail, faxing, Outlook Voice Access)

Per-User Safe Sender and Blocked Sender lists

Transport rules (disclaimers, message security, attachment filtering)

E-mail Lifecycle Management

OWA SharePoint document access

Improved message transport security

Simplified Exchange Management Console

Improved anti-spam features

32KB rules limit gone!

Calendar Concierge

The move to 64 bits
The Move to 64 Bits

  • Improved caching

    • No more 4GB barrier

    • Can reduce I/O up to 70%

  • Reduce number of required spindles

    • Fewer, larger drives to meet requirements

  • Removes kernel bottlenecks

    • Paged pool

    • Non-paged pool

  • Increases simultaneous connections

  • Recommended RAM

    • 2GB + 10MB per user

Why change the architecture
Why Change the Architecture?

  • Scalability: support larger mailboxes and a larger number of connected clients

  • Simplicity: use existing concepts in the underlying Windows operating system

  • Flexibility: provide more flexibility in deploying and managing Exchange

  • Trustworthy: protect against attacks, malware, eavesdropping, and tampering

Simplified deployment
Simplified Deployment

  • Improved management (see in EX02)

    • Exchange Management Console

    • Exchange Management Shell

    • Administrative model

  • Role-based deployment

  • Improved installation process

  • No more administrative groups

  • Improved high availability features

Improved installation
Improved Installation

Role Based installation aims to reduce management complexity and improve security

Servers can be optimized for the roles installed on it

Increased availability through load balancing and clustering by roles

Management by server roles is more intuitive

Install via GUI / Wizard

Command line/scriptable

Unattended Install (Exchange Management Shell)

Exchange 2007 server roles
Exchange 2007 Server Roles

By defining well-described roles, we can:

  • Remove unnecessary functionality

  • Reduce the attack surface

  • Benefit: optimize server performance

  • Benefit: reduced exposure in the perimeter

  • Server roles 1 5
    Server Roles 1/5

    • Edge Transport

      • Must be on its own separate physical machine

      • No other roles installed

      • May be workgroup member or joined to an Active Directory domain

      • Uses Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM) for configuration and recipient information

      • Perimeter policy enforcement (see EX03)

      • Message hygiene (see EX04)

        • Anti-spam

        • Transport anti-virus

    • Not Required

    Server roles 2 5
    Server Roles 2/5

    • Client Access Server (CAS)

      • Supports Outlook Web Access, Exchange ActiveSync, Outlook Anywhere (formerly RPC/HTTPS), POP3 and IMAP4 protocols, Auto-discover, and Web services

      • At least one CAS in each site and domain where mailbox servers exist

      • Requires good network connection to mailbox servers

      • Uses RPC communication to mailbox server

      • MAPI/RPC clients connects directly to the mailbox servers

    Server roles 3 5
    Server Roles 3/5

    • Hub Transport

      • Handles message delivery and routing (see EX03)

      • Applies policies to incoming and outgoing mail (see EX03)

      • Can handle message hygiene functions

      • Reduces cost and complexity

        • Provides more predictable routing

        • Reduces downtime

    Server roles 4 5
    Server Roles 4/5

    • Mailbox

      • Responsible for serving mailbox databases and public folders

      • Mailbox access through MAPI

      • Possible to require MAPI encryption

      • Possible to run without public folders

      • HA options:

        • Local Continuous Replication (LCR)

        • Cluster Continuous Replication (CCR)

        • Single Copy Cluster (SCC)

    Server roles 5 5
    Server Roles 5/5

    • Unified Messaging

      • Placed in the protected corporate network

      • Requires that Mailbox and Hub Transport roles exist

      • Check with your phone vendor to see if their phone system will work with UM server

        • May require PBX gateway

    Network placement
    Network Placement

    • Edge Transport Server:

      • Perimeter placement recommended

      • Should not be a member of corporate AD forest

        • Perimeter AD forest

        • Workgroup

      • Must be connected to a Hub Transport server

    • Client Access Server:

      • ISA can publish OWA, RPC over HTTP, and ActiveSync

      • At least one in every AD site with a mailbox server

    • Hub Transport:

      • At least one in every AD site with a mailbox server

    Things to consider
    Things to Consider

    • Interdependencies

      • Mailbox servers require the Hub Transport role for message delivery – even to the same database

      • The CAS roles provide OWA, ActiveSync, RPC over HTTP, the Availability Service, Auto-discovery, and more

      • The Edge role requires a Hub Transport server

    • Fault tolerance

      • Mailbox servers can only talk to Hub Transport servers in the same Active Directory site

      • Mailbox servers will talk to Hubs on the same server before other Hubs in the same Active Directory site

      • For proxy & re-direct scenarios CAS connects to "best" CAS

    • CAS not the same as FE servers

    Changes to message routing1
    Changes to Message Routing

    • Routing uses Active Directory sites

    • Hub Transport in one site always attempts direct connect to another site first

      • When direct relay is not possible, uses automatically established connections based on:

        • Sites

        • Site Links

        • Costs

    • RGs and RGCs not required

    • No more link state updates

    • Automatic configuration of routing topology

    • Division of services between Hub and Edge

    Changes to message routing2
    Changes to Message Routing

    • Hub Transport routing changes significantly

      • First, select a route

      • Then, attempt direct delivery along the route

      • Delay fan-out as long as possible

        • Delay “bifurcation” or message split

    • Route selection is simplified and deterministic

      • Identify least cost route

      • If multiple routes with same cost, choose one with lowest hop count

      • If equal sites exist, find last site prior to destination

    To edge or not to edge
    To Edge or Not To Edge

    Edge servers are optional

    You can continue to use other perimeter SMTP relays and smart hosts

    Hub Transport role can receive mail directly from the Internet or send mail directly to the Internet

    Focus on high availability
    Focus on High Availability

    Improve data availability

    Protect mailbox data from failures and corruptions

    Reduce time required to restore mailbox data

    Service availability

    Make mailbox data more available

    Make cluster failover less painful

    Make cluster management easier

    Support for ‘stretch’ or ‘geo-clusters’

    Allow large mailboxes inexpensively

    High availability options
    High Availability Options

    • Hub Transport Role

      • Redundant hardware

      • Automatically load balanced and redundant with multiple HTs

    • Edge, Client Access Server and Unified Messaging Roles

      • Redundant hardware

      • Windows NLB or third party load balancing

      • Round robin DNS

      • DNS MX records (Edge only)

    • Mailbox Server Role

      • Replication and clustering

      • Local Continuous Replication (LCR for single servers)

      • Clustered Continuous Replication (CCR)

      • Single Copy Clustering (SCC)

    Local continuous replication
    Local Continuous Replication

    • Additional copy of the logs

      • On the same server

      • On a different volume

    • Benefits

      • Easy configuration

      • Single datacenter

      • Doesn’t require expensive hardware

      • Online backups

      • Very quick restoration of service

    • Drawbacks

      • Manual activation

      • Additional storage requirements

    Lcr diagrammed
    LCR Diagrammed




    Copy of Database

    Copy of


    Clustered continuous replication
    Clustered Continuous Replication

    • Benefits

      • Potentially no single point of failure

      • Two copies of the data on separate servers

      • No need for shared storage.

      • Full redundancy with automatic recovery

      • Backup mailboxes without disturbing production

      • Doesn’t require validation for clustered configuration

    • Drawbacks

      • Initial database seeding required

      • Servers must be on same subnet

      • Transaction logs pulled over SMB shares

      • Some scenarios required log validation, replay

    Ccr caveats
    CCR Caveats

    • Requires Microsoft Cluster Services

      • Majority Node Set cluster

      • Requires a third “voting” node - uses a shared folder

    • Two-node, Active/Passive only

    • Backup:

      • Streaming backup against production storage groups

      • VSS backup against production and replica storage groups

    • Limit of one database per storage group

    • Can be used for PF database if it is the only PF database in the organization

    Ccr diagrammed
    CCR Diagrammed

    Server 1

    Server 2






    Lcr versus ccr
    LCR versus CCR


    Focused towards resiliency

    Improve restore time

    Administrator has to initiate restore manually

    Single data-center solution

    Implements log shipping and replay out of the box

    Log files are copied locally and replayed


    Targeted towards site resiliency

    Automatic failovers

    Single or two-data center solution

    Supports “stretch” option

    Implements log shipping and replay out of the box

    Log files are copied to remote server and replayed

    Simplifies cluster deployment

    No SAN or shared storage

    Shared copy clusters
    Shared Copy Clusters

    • Requires Microsoft Cluster Services

    • Benefits

      • Improved Exchange Cluster setup

      • Traditional clustering used today

      • Failovers use the same data copy

    • Disadvantages

      • Requires expensive hardware with shared storage

      • Can be complicated for admins to learn

      • Doesn’t protect from storage/data issues

      • Servers must be on same IP subnet

      • Data redundancy provided through partners

    Scc diagrammed
    SCC Diagrammed

    Server 1

    Server 2

    Shared Storage

    Upgrade paths
    Upgrade Paths

    • Can upgrade organization from:

      • Exchange 2000 Server

      • Exchange Server 2003

    • Cannot upgrade org from Exchange 5.5

    • No in-place server upgrades

    • Move all existing mailboxes and services

    • Consolidate

    • Most new mailbox features require mailbox to be homed on Exchange 2007

    • Many new features require Outlook 2007

    Keeping older exchange versions
    Keeping Older Exchange Versions

    • Exchange 2000

      • Microsoft Mobile Information Server

      • Instant Messaging Service

      • Exchange Chat Service

      • Exchange 2000 Conferencing Server

      • Key Management Service

      • cc:Mail Connector

      • MS Mail Connector

    • Exchange 2003

      • Novell GroupWise Connector

      • Public folder access over OWA

    Extending exchange 2007
    Extending Exchange 2007

    • Agent API

      • Transport agents

      • Managed code

    • Management API

      • Built on Exchange Management Shell

      • Complete access to all functionality

      • Scripts can integrate .NET objects

      • Can be called from managed code

    • Web Services API

      • Consistent remote interface into the store

      • Replaces WebDAV

    Infrastructure requirements
    Infrastructure Requirements

    • Schema Master DC requires Windows 2003 SP1

    • GCs used by Exchange 2007 require Windows 2003 SP1

    • AD domain functional level must be Windows 2000 native or higher for:

      • Each domain that will host Exchange 2007 servers

      • Each domain that will host mail-enabled users

    • Multi forest topologies and forest trusts

      • Minimum forest functional level is Windows Server 2003.

    • No Exchange Server 5.5 servers in the organization; organization must be in native mode

    • DNS is correctly configured for the Active Directory forest

    • Active Directory is prepared

    • Note: WINS is no longer required

    The typical upgrade
    The Typical Upgrade

    • Prepare Active Directory

    • Deploy Edge Transport servers - Optional

    • Deploy CAS servers

    • Deploy Hub Transport servers

    • Deploy Mailbox servers

    • Move resources from Exchange 2000/2003 servers

    • Uninstall Exchange 2000/2003 servers from the Exchange organization

    • Remove connectors between RGs

    • Remove RGs


    • 64 bit architecture provides scalability and consolidation wins

    • Improved installation with role-based deployment

    • More High Availability options

    • Closer integration with Windows and Active Directory for consistent, flexible administration

    • New and improved management tools

    For more information
    For more information

    • Visit TechNet


    • Visit the Exchange 2007 home page


      • Get signed up for Beta 2!

    • Exchange Team blog


    • Exchange 2007 Documentation


    • Requirements