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  1. Introduction to GRID computing Introduction GRID Tutorial Jules Wolfrat SARA

  2. Definition of Grid • From an EU brochure: • It doesn’t matter if your team is modeling the Earth’s atmosphere, designing cars, creating animated films or finding new medicines, the basic principle is the same: your Grid supplies all the computing power, software, data and knowledge you need in one integrated package, and helps project teams work more closely together • The analogy with the power grid: • Like you can plug in anywhere to the power grid without knowing where your energy is coming from you can plug into the grid without knowing where your (computing) resources are coming from. Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  3. History (1) • From a news item in 1991 • “Smarr describes the metacomputer as a network of heterogeneous, computational resources linked by software in such a way that they can be used as easily as a personal computer” • So the concept was introduced already in the early 90s, known as metacomputing. • Motivation was the emergence of computer networks. Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  4. Example (1) Following is an example of the kind of initiatives started in those years from close by: In 1996 a project was started in Amsterdam: The Amsterdam Metacomputing project is an ongoing effort from the University of Amsterdam (UvA), the Free University (VU) and "Academic Computing Services Amsterdam" (SARA) to develop a Metacomputer environment on the Amsterdam campus. Important components of this environment will be: automatic distribution and monitoring of jobs over a network of computer systems, uniform access to files of other users from each place to work and to each computer system incorporated in the environment, distributed storage of data on various fileservers, automatic backup, migration and archiving, general availability of both commercial and public domain software on software servers, and a minimum of system management tasks. In this way scientists will be able to devote all of their time to their actual task: science. Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  5. Example (2) An extensive package of services will gradually be implemented and finally include the following components: • fileservers and distributed, transparent file-systems; • backup, migration and archiving services; • batch-queueing systems, designed for efficient use of local systems, and if desired, of computational servers supplied by SARA; • public domain and specialist (commercial) software servers. All components will be accessible from the scientist's desktop. A client-server architecture will play an important role. Combining components will be a relatively easy task, enhancing efficiency in terms of man-hours needed to accomplish a given task. These pages, as well as the Metacomputer are still in a development stage …….. Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  6. Example (3) Systems available at SARA in 1996 CRAY YMP Vector system Parsytec CC 56 CPUs IBM SP2 76 CPUs Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  7. Example (4) • SARA news item on 16-6-1998 • Basis voor meta-omgeving gelegd. • Sinds 4 mei maakt SARA's IBM RS/6000 SP parallelle supercomputer gebruik van de DCE/DFS omgeving, een filesysteem dat een transparante computeromgeving mogelijk maakt. Met het nieuwe filesysteem zijn bestanden van DCE/DFS gebruikers wereldwijd toegankelijk met andere computersystemen die beschikken over DCE/DFS, waarmee een belangrijke basis is gelegd voor de meta-omgeving. • Gebruikers aan de VU science facultyhebben nu op een uniforme manier toegang tot hun bestanden, ongeacht of ze werken op de RS/6000 SP of een lokaal workstation. Hetzelfde geldt voor gebruikers van het Parsytec CC systeem bij SARA: vanaf zowel de Parsytec als de RS/6000 SP zijn alle bestanden voor de gebruiker direct toegankelijk. Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  8. Example (5) • A web interface was developed for submitting jobs to the metacomputing environment, also a meta job language was used. • Also job migration between systems and mpi over two systems was investigated • First time we heard about globus, one of the well known building blocks now for grid infrastructures. • Network link between systems was a problem, only FE link, Gbit not available, HiPPI (800 Mbps) not available for Parsytec. Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  9. Today (1) • So what is new today? • Scale! Grid infrastructures operate worldwide • International infrastructures - EGEE, DEISA, Nordugrid, OSG, TeraGrid • National – NAREGI (Japan), UK-eScience, D-Grid, NLGrid • Interoperability – availability of middleware – Globus toolkit, UNICORE, NAREGI, schedulers Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  10. Today (2) • Some basic requirements for a grid infrastructure • Transparent user administration – single sign on (single grid identity), authorisation and accounting based on grid identity – AAA facilities • Job scheduling – which can handle different environments • Global data access • Global information services – job information, data information, resource information • Interoperability! • Standards needed for federation of infrastructures – GGF, IETF…. Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  11. Networking (1) • Developments in network connectivity (high bandwidths) and tools play an important role • 10 Gbps WAN links available today, both shared links and dedicated lightpaths (based on lambda technology) • 1 Gbps network adapters are commodity items on systems today and 10GE adapters available Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  12. Networking (2) • GridFTP can use multiple streams in order to take full advantage of available bandwidth • Parallel files systems can take full advantage of underlying high speed networks - throughput can be in the order of 100MByte/s and more • Tuning of WAN TCP must get attention, e.g. latencies are in the order of milliseconds (~20 in Europe), defaults on systems mostly not suited for bulk data transports. Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  13. SURFnet6 DWDM on dark fiber SURFnet 6 infrastructure Muenster Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  14. GLORIAD-RU @NIKHEF GE 622M GLORIAD NetherLight – Lightpath connections to the Netherlands 3rd quarter 2005 Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  15. Global Lambda Integrated Facility (GLIF)World Map Visualization courtesy of Bob Patterson, NCSA/University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Data compilation by Maxine Brown, University of Illinois at Chicago. Earth texture from NASA. Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  16. GEANT2 topology Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  17. The EGEE project • EGEE • 1 April 2004 – 31 March 2006 • 71 partners in 27 countries, federated in regional Grids • Operation of a pan European production Grid • EGEE-II • 1 April 2006 – 31 March 2008 • Expanded consortium • 91 partners • 11 Joint Research Units • Natural continuation of EGEE • Emphasis on providing production-level infrastructure • increased support for applications • interoperation with other Grid infrastructures • more involvement from Industry Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  18. The EGEE infrastructure • Mission • Manage and operate production e-Infrastructure open to all user communities and service providers • Contribute to Grid standardisation and policy efforts • Infrastructure operation • Currently include ~200 sites across 39 countries • Continuous monitoring of Grid services in a distributed global infrastructure • Automated site configuration/management • Future • Expand on interoperability with related infrastructures Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  19. EGEE-II Federations and Countries Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  20. Operational Organisation Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  21. User Support Activities Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  22. User support in NE region • NE website: • User support: contact user support at local site or mail to • NE uses a ticketing system monitored by different partners from our region. In NL NIKHEF, RC-RuG, SARA responsible. • Tickets from GGUS are also imported in the NE system • Application support – NA4 activity. In NL RC-RuG, SARA Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  23. A Selection of Monitoring tools 1. GIIS Monitor 2. GIIS Monitor graphs 3. GOC Data Base 4. Scheduled Downtimes 5. GridIce – VO view 6. Live Job Monitor Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  24. Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  25. The DEISA project • Objective: To enable Europe’s terascale science by the integration of Europe’s most powerful supercomputing systems. • DEISA is an European Supercomputing Service built on top of existing national services. This service is based on the deployment and operation of a persistent, production quality, distributed supercomputing environment with continental scope. Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  26. THE DEISA SUPERCOMPUTING GRID AIX distributed super-cluster Vector systems (NEC, …) GEANT Linux systems (SGI, IBM, …) Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  27. Participating Sites BSC Barcelona Supercomputing Centre Spain CINECA Consortio Interuniversitario per il Calcolo AutomaticoItaly CSC Finnish Information Technology Centre for ScienceFinland EPCC/HPCx University of Edinburgh and CCLRCUK ECMWF European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast UK (int) FZJ Research Centre Juelich Germany HLRS High Performance Computing Centre Stuttgart Germany IDRIS Institut du Développement et des Ressources France en Informatique Scientifique- CNRS LRZ Leibniz Rechenzentrum Munich Germany RZG Rechenzentrum Garching of the Max Planck Society Germany SARA Dutch National High Performance ComputingThe Netherlands and Networking centre Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  28. DEISA technologies • GPFS – parallel filesystem for transparent file access from all systems – dedicated European network used for high throughput • Loadleveler-MC for job submission on AIX systems • UNICORE for job submission to all systems • Common Programming Environment (CPE) on all systems for DEISA users • Single username on all systems Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006

  29. Access • Users can submit proposals for access to DEISA resources through DECI (DEISA Extreme Computing Initiative) calls • Proposals are evaluated by national committees and depending on ranking get access to resources • Most partners contribute about 10% of their resources for DEISA applications • URL: Grid Tutorial, Groningen, September 2006