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Flowers. Are modified twigs adapted primarily for reproduction, which ultimately forms the fruit and the seed. Parts of a Complete Flower. Pistil:. Stamen:. Stigma. Anther. Style. Filament. Ovary. Floral envelope or Perianth:. Floral stalk:. Petal (corolla). Receptacle (torus).

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slide1

Flowers

Are modified twigs adapted primarily for reproduction, which ultimately forms the fruit and the seed.

slide2

Parts of a Complete Flower

Pistil:

Stamen:

Stigma

Anther

Style

Filament

Ovary

Floral envelope or Perianth:

Floral stalk:

Petal (corolla)

Receptacle

(torus)

Sepal (calyx)

Peduncle

slide3

Stigma – slightly enlarged tip of the style on which pollen is deposited at pollination

Style – a long and thin filament that serves as a passageway for pollen grains to move from the stigma to the ovary

Ovary – a swollen basal part of a pistil which carries the ovule or eggs (yellow); where fertilized eggs develop

CARPEL (Gynoecium)

The female reproductive part of a flower. It is collectively known as the Pistil.

slide4

Types of Carpels (Gynoecium)

Avocado (Persea sp.)

If a gynoecium has a single carpel, it is called

Monocarpous or Unicarpellate Gynoecium

slide5

Types of Carpels (Gynoecium)

Unfused Carpels

Strawberry (Fragaria sp.)

If a gynoecium has multiple, distinct (free, unfused) carpels, it is apocarpous.

slide6

Types of Carpels (Gynoecium)

Fused Carpels

Tulip (Tulipa sp.)

If a gynoecium has multiple carpels fused (connate) into a single structure, it is syncarpous.

slide7

Anther – where pollens are formed

Filament – a stalk holding the pollen at its tip

STAMEN (Androecium)

The male reproductive part of a flower

slide8

Petal (corolla) – the innermost whorl surrounding the flowers reproductive parts. It is usually brightly colored to attract pollinators

Sepal (calyx ) – usually a green leaf-like structure that forms the outermost floral whorl; it protects the inner parts of the flower before it opens.

FLORAL ENVELOPE or PERIANTH

slide9

FLORAL STALK

Receptacle (torus) – thickened part of a stem from which the flower grows

Peduncle – a stalk supporting the flower

slide10

Variable Features

and

Structures

of

Flowers

slide11

Color

Gerbera daisies (Gerbera sp.)

Dutchman's Pipe(Epiphyllumoxypetalum)

Day-blooming flowers are generally brightly colored

Night-blooming flowers are usually white, creamy or yellowish

slide12

Odor

Ilang-ilang (Cananga odorata)

Corpse flower (Amorphophallus titanum)

Flower with stinky odor

Flower with fragrant odor

slide13

Parts Present

  • Complete Flowers
  • flowers are said to be complete when the four main parts (petal, sepal, stamen and carpel) are present
  • Incomplete Flower
  • flowers are incomplete when one or more of the main parts are not present
slide14

Sexuality

  • Flowers with both stamen and carpel are called Perfect Flowers. These flowers can also be called bisexual or hermaphroditic flowers.
  • Flowers that have only either stamen or carpel are called Imperfect Flowers. This flowers can also be called Unisexual flowers. An imperfect flower with only the carpel or pistil is called Pistillate flower. One with the stamen only is a Staminate flower.
slide15

Perfect Flower

Gumamela (Hibiscus sp.)

Chichirica (Catharanthusroseus)

slide16

Imperfect Flower - Monoecious

  • Both male and female flowers are found on the same plant.

Corn (Zeamays)

Pistillate flower

Staminate flower

slide17

Imperfect Flower - Dioecious

Imperfect flowers are borne on separate plants

Papaya (Carica papaya)

Pistillate flower

Staminate flower

slide18

Imperfect Flower - Polygamous

  • Perfect and imperfect flowers are found in a single plant.

Canadian Burnet (Sanguisorba sp.)

slide19

Nature of flowers

  • Flowers are Regular when the members of each set of organs (sepals, petals, stamen and carpels) are of the same size and shape
  • Flowers are Irregular when some members of one or more sets of organs are different in size or shape or both.

Bleeding heart (DicentraSpectabilis)

slide20

Regular flower

  • Members of each set of organs are of the same size and shape

Rose (Rosa sp.)

Cosmos (Cosmosbipinnatus )

slide21

Irregular flower - Papilionaceous

  • Standard petalor Banner
  • Outermost and the largest part of the flower
  • Wingsor Alae
  • Two lateral petals
  • Keels or Carinae
  • Two innermost and smallest petal.

Chicharo (Pisumsativum)

slide22

Irregular flower - Caesalpinaceous

  • Wings
  • Two upper lateral petals
  • Banner
  • Innermost and smallest petal
  • Keel
  • Two lower lateral petals

Caballero (Caesalpiniapulcherrima)

slide23

Irregular flower - Bilabiate

Upper Lip

Lower Lip

Snap Dragon (Antirrhinum majus)

Sage (salvia officinalis)

slide24

Irregular flower - Orchidaceous

  • Sepals
  • Three outermost whorl
  • Petals
  • Two innermost whorl
  • LiporLabellum
  • Also a petal but with different shape and size

Cattleya(Cattleya sp.)

slide25

Fusion of flowers

Connation – when like parts are fused or united

Fused filaments

Fused petals forming a cone

Blue eye grass

(Sisyrinchiumatlanticum)

Morning Glory (Ipomea sp.)

slide26

Adnation– when unlike parts are fused

Stamen is adnate to petals

Lip is adnate to stamen

Crucifix Orchid (Epidendrumsecundum)

Angels trumpet (Daturawrightii)

slide27

Number of flowers parts

Monocot

Flower parts are in 3’s or in multiple of 3’s

Benguet Lily

(Liliaceae sp.)

Giant Spiderwort

(Tradescantia gigantea)

slide28

Dicot

Flower parts are in 4’s or 5’s or in multiple of 4’s or 5’s

Monkey-flower (Mimuluslewisii)

Rosal (Gardenia jasminoides)

slide29

Symmetry

  • Actinomorphic
  • radial symmetry
  • flowers can be divided into 2 equal halves along any plane
  • Zygomorphic
  • bilateral symmetry
  • divided into 2 equal halves only by a medial cut through the central axis
slide30

Actinomorphic

Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa)

Water Lily (Nymphaea sp.)

slide31

Zygomorphic

Dancing ladies

(Oncidiumaltissimum)

Sword Lily

(Gladiolus sp.)

slide32

Ovary Position

Superior or Hypogynous

ovary

The sepals and petals are attached below the ovary

Kalamansi (Citrofortunellamicrocarpa)

slide33

Half-Superior /Half-Inferior or Perigynous

The sepals and petals are attached at the side of the ovary

Golasiman

(Portulacaoleracea)

ovary

slide34

Ground Orchid

(Spathoglottisplicata)

ovary

Squash (Cucurbita sp.)

Inferior or Epigynous

ovary

The sepals and petals are attached above the ovary

slide35

Placentation

The places where the ovules are attached in the ovary are known as placentae. The arrangement of the placentae inside the ovary is called placentation

slide36

Axile

The placentae are found at the central axis of a compound ovary

ovaries with ovules

Tomato (Solanumlycopersicum)

slide37

Parietal

The placentae are found on the wall of a compound ovary .

ovaries with ovules

Cucumber (Cucumissativus)

slide38

Marginal

The placentae are located on the wall of a single ovary. A single ovary has one chamber or locule.

ovary with ovules

String Beans (Phaseolusvulgaris)

slide39

Basal

The placentae with a single ovule is found more or less at the base of the ovary

ovaries with ovules

Chrysanthemums

(Chrysanthemums indicum)

slide40

Inflorescence

Flower clusters are called inflorescence. These may differ in the number of flowers borne, the sequence of flower maturation, the length of flower stalks, the number and arrangement of the floral branches or peduncles.

slide41

Spike

An inflorescence has an elongated axis with sessile (without pedicel) florets

Bottle brush (Callistemon lanceolatus)

Pancit-pancita (Peperomiapellucida)

slide42

Raceme

Aloe vera

(Aloe vera)

Golden Shower

(Laburnum anagyroides)

The elongated axis is unbranched. The flowers are provided with stalks or pedicles of equal lengths and are called pedicellate flowers.

slide43

Panicle

The elongated axis is branched. Flowers are pedicellate, opening all at the same time

Rice

(Oriza sativa)

Tigbi

(Coixlachryma-jobi)

slide44

Corymb

Caballero

(Caesalpiniapulcherrima)

Yarrow

(Achilleamillefolium)

It has a more or less flat convex top because of the pedicels bearing the outer, older flowers are longer than the younger flowers at the center.

slide45

Umbel

The axis is short so that all the pedicellate flowers radiate from the apex of the axis.

Simple

Japanese bamboo (Dracaena surculosa)

Compound

Queen Anne’s Lace (Daucuscarota)

slide46

Cyme

This inflorescence is similar to a corymb except that the inner pedicelled flowers open first

Santan(Ixora sp.)

Shanghai beauty (Jatrophapandurifolia)

slide47

A fleshy spike (spadix) bearing both male and female flowers, surrounded by a petaloid bract called the spathe.

Spadix

spadix

spathe

Anthurium(Anthuriumandreanum)

Calla Lily (Zantedeschia sp.)

slide48

Belembe Silvestre (Xanthosoma helleborifolium)

Syngonium

(Syngoniumschottianum)

male florets

female florets

slide49

Catkin/ Ament

Copper plant

(Acalyphawilkesiana)

Cat’s Tail

(Acalyphahispida)

This inflorescence is a special type of spike which is hanging or drooping . The flowers are usually unisexual.

slide50

Birds of Paradise (Strelitzia sp.)

The pedicelled or sessile flowers are crowded at one side of the stem

Fascicle

Deerweed (Lotus scoparius)

slide51

It is similar to umbel but the flowers are sessile. Usually the flowers are of two kinds: the disc flower at the center and the ray flowers at the margin

Head/ Capitate

ray flowers

disc flowers

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii)

slide52

Head of

Sunflower family

slide53

Thank You

for

Listening