Warm-up (4/2 & 4/3) • Pick up the sheets at the front • Weigh your plants and place them back in their environment • What part of the plant causes primary growth? • What process is occurring in the meristems? • What parts of the leaf prevent it from drying out? • What hormone causes fruit to ripen? • What term describes plants responding to touch?
Objectives • Look at how plants adapt to different environments • Understand the parts of a flower • Understand pollination vs. fertilization • Understand how flowers are pollinated and how seeds are dispersed
Homework • Finish flower dissection lab • Finish Unit 9 packet • Finish Plant Quiz – due next time • Study for test – moved to 4/9 or 4/10
Plant Adaptations Aquatic plants To take in sufficient oxygen, aquatic plants, have tissues with large air-filled spaces through which oxygen can diffuse. Stomata located on top of leaf! Desert plants Have extensive roots, reduced leaves, and thick stems that can store water. Leaves are modified to reduce evaporative water loss and, often, to deter herbivores.
Rapid Response Nutritional Specialists Plants that have specialized features for obtaining nutrients include carnivorous plants and parasites.
Chemical Defenses Many plants defend themselves against insect attack by manufacturing compounds that have powerful effects on animals.
Male Flower Parts Sepal – leaf-like appendages that protect the flower bud Petal – colorful structures that attract pollinators Anther – forms pollen (male gamete) Stigma – Sticky top that will catch pollen Ovule - eggs
Female Flower Parts Filament – Holds up the anther Style – Curved neck that connects stigma and ovary Pollen – male gamete Stamen – male reproductive organ Flower – reproductive organ of the plant Add these: Pistil(aka carpal)– female reproductive organ Ovary– Base of organ that contains ovules (eggs), ovary will develop into fruit, eggs will become seeds
Flower Parts STIGMA ANTHER STYLE STAMEN FILAMENT PISTIL PETALS (COROLLA) EGG Ovule OVARY SEPALS (CALYX)
Pollination/Fertilization • Pollination – when pollen (sperm) is transferred from an anther to a stigma (can be from the same plant – self-pollination) • Fertilization – when pollen on the stigma enters the ovary and combines with the ovule (egg)
Pollinators 3. Flies – like rotting meat smell • Honeybees – need a • landing platform • 2. Night-flying moths – need white, • very fragrant flowers
Pollinators 4. Hummingbirds – like bright colored (red or orange), tube-shaped flowers 5. Bats – like sour, musty odors (Banana tree) 6. Wind Light weight flowers, No particular color or scent.
Fruit Formation • After the seed is fertilized, the ovary either becomes fleshy (like a fruit) or hard (as in a nut).
Seed Dispersal • Fruit has propellers – dispersed by wind • Burrs, hooks – animal fur • Tasty fruit – digestive tract of animals