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Animals. What is an Animal?. We take it for granted that animals are things that are fuzzy, furry and we can pet However to really understand what animals are, we have to have a broad definition of animals and an open mind Not all animals fit the 3 rd grade idea of an animal.

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what is an animal
What is an Animal?
  • We take it for granted that animals are things that are fuzzy, furry and we can pet
  • However to really understand what animals are, we have to have a broad definition of animals and an open mind
  • Not all animals fit the 3rd grade idea of an animal
what is an animal1
What is an Animal?
  • Animals are…
    • Multicellular
    • Heterotrophs
    • Eukaryotic
    • Obtain nutrients through ingestion
  • Multicellular – Many Cells
  • Heterotrophic – Other Feeding
  • Eukaryotic – True Nut
  • Ingestion – Process of Eating
what is an animal2
What is an Animal?
  • Also animals have a few other fun features
    • Distinctive cell organelles
    • No cell walls
    • Held together by collagen
  • All of these factors are things that make animals unique
animal development
Animal Development
  • The process of reproduction is similar to most animals as well
  • Adults produce the gametes eggs or sperm through meiosis
  • Eggs and sperm combine to create a zygote
  • A zygote is a single cell created from the fusion of egg and sperm
animal development1
Animal Development
  • The zygote starts to undergo mitosis
  • This happens rapidly and the number of cells starts to grow
  • The cells then form a blastula
  • A blastula is a ball of cells that is typically hollow
animal development2
Animal Development
  • Once the blastula has formed one of the sides starts to fold into itself
  • When this happens the group of cells is called a gastrula
  • The inner folds are called the endoderm
  • They will form the digestive tract
animal development3
Animal Development
  • The cells that remain on the outer layer are called the endoderm
  • They will eventually form the outer coverings of the animal
  • They can also form some nervous organs
animal development4
Animal Development
  • The cells that are trapped in between the two layers are called the mesoderm
  • These will form most of the internal organs of the animal
animal development5
Animal Development
  • After the gastrula stage, many animals develop to adults
  • However not all animals are the same
  • Some animals develop into a larval stage
  • These animals will have to undergo metamorphosis later in life to reach an adult form
body plans
Body Plans
  • Animals can be characterized by their body plans
  • This means the makeup and location of their major parts, organs and brain
  • Based on how organisms are laid out, we can tell a large amount about their history
body plans1
Body Plans
  • Symmetry plays a portent role in describing body plans
  • Symmetry is a mathematical patterned self similarity
  • Types of symmetry are important to understanding body plans
body plans2
Body Plans
  • Radial symmetry is when an organism is symmetric on a central body part
  • All parts would be symmetrical if you used a pizza cutter
  • Bilateral symmetry is when an organism’s halves are symmetrical
  • All parts would be symmetrical if you used a buzzsaw
body plans3
Body Plans
  • To define symmetry we have to define the surfaces of an organism
  • Anterior – Refers to an organisms head
  • Posterior – Refers to an organisms tail (end)
  • Dorsal– Refers to an organisms back
  • Ventral – Refers to an organisms bottom (stomach)
space the biological frontier
Space – The Biological Frontier
  • Take your hand and poke your partner’s (or your own if they object) belly
  • What do you feel?
  • Is there a strong muscle that goes from ventral to dorsal?
  • What makes up that area?
space the biological frontier1
Space – The Biological Frontier
  • Organisms can have a body cavity… or not
  • A body cavity is a fluid filled space between the outer digestive tract and the body wall
  • Not every organism has a body cavity
space the biological frontier2
Space – The Biological Frontier
  • If there is a fluid filled space between the body wall and the inner digestive tract it is called a hydrostatic skeleton
  • This enables a greater range of movement for the organism and cushions and protects the inner organs
  • Once you understand how organisms are built and develop we can define which ones are related
  • Remember, a biological family tree is called a phylogenetic tree
  • Today we will be studying the different groupings of invertebrates
  • Invertebrates lack a spinal column
  • This does not limit their complex nature or their role in the environment
  • Sponges are organisms that have a simple porous body
  • Considered the most simple organisms
  • Contain no muscles or nerves
  • Some are radially symmetric, however most have no major body plan
  • One of the oldest invertebrates
  • Includes hydras, sea anemones, corals and jellies (aka jellyfish)
  • They have radial symmetry
  • They are all carnivores
  • They use complex nematocyststhat sting prey
  • They have two major body types
  • A polyp is fixed on one end with extending tentacles
  • A medusa is a free moving form of the cnidarian that can move with or against the tide
  • This consists of the flatworms
    • They are worms… that are flat
  • Have a gastrointestinal system with only one opening
  • Due to their nature they need to be in water or damp envrionments
  • Free-living Flatworms live under rocks and have light sensitive eyecups
  • Flukes live as parasites and can utilize multiple hosts
  • Tapeworms are intestinal parasites that have no digestive tract

  • Nematodes are also called roundworms
    • This is because they are round… and worms
  • They have bilateral symmetry and they have a false body cavity
  • They have a mouth at the blunt end of the body
  • They also have a tough outer coat called a cuticle
  • Nematodes are the first organisms that have a one way digestive tract
  • Many nematodes have a function as detritus feeders
  • Some nematodes are parasites and can be dangerous
  • A real life heartworm extraction
  • Warning (Not for everyone)
  • Annelids are segmented worms
    • This means they are worms … that have segments
  • Its body is segmented into a region of repeating parts
  • Each part is designed to function and move on its own
  • Greatly increases the flexibility and speed of the organism
  • Has a true body cavity
  • They have an opencirculatory system
  • This means that organs are bathed directly in blood
  • Their body has one small brain with nerve clusters in each segment
  • Their body has a large pumping organ in front and behind the body
  • Earthworms are the most commonly found in damp soils
  • The polychaetes are mostly marine and they are distinct for their “hairy” and feathery appearance
  • Leeches are carnivores or parasites that are mostly in freshwater, salt water or live in trees