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# Elec 236 Logic Circuits - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Elec 236 Logic Circuits. Images from Chapter 3 Digital Systems 10 th Ed. by Tocci Prof. Tim Johnson. Basic Boolean Theorems. Communiative Theorems. x + y = y + x It doesn’t matter to the output where input x and input y are connected. Similarly… X*Y = Y*X

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### Elec 236 Logic Circuits

Images from Chapter 3

Digital Systems 10th Ed. by Tocci

Prof. Tim Johnson

• x + y = y + x

• It doesn’t matter to the output where input x and input y are connected.

• Similarly…

• X*Y = Y*X

• The inputs to an AND gate don’t care which one is hook up where, switching the connections will not affect the output.

• X + Y + Z = X + (Y + Z) = (X + Y) + Z

• XYZ = X(YZ) = (XY)Z

• In these cases, a three input OR/AND gate is the same as 2 two-input OR/AND gates where X and Y or Y and Z are connect to one of the input of the next OR/AND gate. The parenthesis represent the grouping of two of the inputs feeding into the next level.

Device schematic for associative expressions

• X(Y + Z) = XY +XZ

• (W + X)(Y + Z) = WY + WZ + XY + XZ

• In these cases, ordinary arithmetic rules apply and can alter the gate structure from 1) a two-input OR gate feeding an AND gate INTO two AND gates feeding a two-input OR gate, 2) two 2-input OR gates feeding a 2-input AND gate INTO four 2-input AND gates feeding a 3-input OR gate.

Device schematic for distributive expressions

• X + XY => X

• An input OR’ed with itself AND another input makes the other input unnecessary.

• X + XY => X + Y

• X + XY => X + Y

• If one of the OR inputs is the INVERSE of one of the AND inputs…you keep the single input by itself and drop the inverse input keeping the OR gate

DeMorgan Theorems AND gate

• (X + Y) = X Y

• (X Y) = X + Y

• To implement these rules, looking at the left expression: break the bar and change the sign.

• This changes the output inversion to an inversion of the inputs and changes the type of gate used!

Device schematics for AND gateDeMorgan Theorems

Double Negative AND gate

• A double negative is an input, output, or group that has two bars across the input, output or group. Examples

• X, X+Y, ABC, L+MN

• Become

• X, X+Y, ABC, L+MN

• Ignore double bars of the same length over the same inputs. You can delete both bars

Points to remember AND gate

• The letters used in these rules can represent groups:

• X ∙1 = X can also be written as AB∙1 = AB

• X + Y = Y + X ≈> DY + CE = CE + DY

• F + ABC = ABC + F

• C + LC = C + CL = CL + C

• X(Y + Z) = XY +XZ ≈> DMA + CMA = (D + C)MA

More Points to Realize AND gate

• The Boolean rules apply across the equal sign meaning the change can go both ways:

• X(Y + Z) = XY + XZ means XY + XZ = X(Y + Z)

• Think of the equal sign as meaning 

CDE + ABC => CDE + CAB => C(DE + AB)

or skipping the second step you can just take the common term out of CDE + ABC as you would in Algebra.

• BX + B is one of those 2-input OR gates using an AND gate as one of the inputs. Here’s why its correct: B(X+1) pulls the common term out. One (1) is a Boolean symbol that means always TRUE (or high). We have an elementary Boolean rule that deals with X+1 right?

X+1 = 1, so we can substitute in a 1 for the X+1 giving us: B·1. Don’t we have a rule for X·1 ? X AND 1 is X. Thus BX + B => B

Writing a reduction solution to AND gateBX + B

BX + B

becomes

B(X + 1)

by distribution theorem

B∙1

by Basic Theorem #6

B

by Basic Theorem #2

Inverted terms AND gate

• The common term can be a NOT input, X

• ABC + XYC => C(AB + XY)

• Carefully observe that the above expression does not meet all the criteria to apply the other rules for 2-input OR gates…dropping the other inputs to the AND gate. Those rules don’t apply here because the NOT input is not by itself (running solo).

More expressions with NOT terms AND gate

• Take for example, X + XY = X + Y

BU + ACBU

rearranged:

BU + BUAC

This reduces to:

BU + AC

This does not work with BU +ABCU because

BU ≠ B∙U (DeMorgan rule applies here)