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Countries in Unrest

Countries in Unrest. In The Past and Currently Today. Today and in the past there have always been countries who have been split on issues based on Government, Religion, Economics, Language, and Cultural differences.

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Countries in Unrest

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  1. Countries in Unrest In The Past and Currently Today

  2. Today and in the past there have always been countries who have been split on issues based on Government, Religion, Economics, Language, and Cultural differences. • We will begin the unit looking at a couple documentaries on past Country conflicts which will allow us to know and understand where these Countries today may be heading, and what the results could be. • You will be responsible for writing a summary on each of the 2 documentaries at the start of this unit. Introduction

  3. In this unit we will begin reviewing 2 countries who had very public disputes and violence. • Croatian War of Independence (1991-1995 - ESPN Documentary) • Georgian War (2004-2008) • We will also look at the stories behind current major unrest in countries such as: - Syria - Egypt - Ukraine Introduction

  4. On January 25th, 2011 millions of protesters from a variety of socio-economic and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of the regime of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak…Their were also important Islamic, liberal, anti-capitalist, nationalist, and feminist currents of the revolution. • Violent clashes between security forces and protesters resulted in at least 846 people killed, and 100,000 injured. • Protesters also burned upwards of 90 police stations. • These protests took place in Cairo, Alexandria, as well as other Egyptian cities. Egypt

  5. Egypt

  6. The Egyptians were protesting many legal and political issues including, police brutality, state of emergency laws, lack of free elections, freedom of speech, corruption, and economic issues including high unemployment, food price inflation, and low wages. • The primary demands from the protesters were to end Mubarak’s reign, put an end to emergency law, give them their freedom, justice, and a say in the management of Egypt’s resources. • During the uprising the capital city of Cairo was described as a “war zone” and the port city of Suez saw frequent violent clashes. Here’s what it looked like Egypt

  7. The protesters defied the government-imposed curfew and the police and military didn’t enforce it. • There was looting by gangs that opposition sources said were instigated by plain clothed police officers (loyal to Mubarak)…In response, watch groups were organized by civilians to protect neighborhoods. • On February 11, 2011 after days of violence, with many peaceful protestors having been killed, President Mubarak resigned from office, and turned power over to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF). ABC News Story • The military, headed by the head of state Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, announced that the constitution would be suspended, both houses of parliament dissolved, and that the military would rule for six months until elections could be held. Egypt

  8. The protests continued as the people put into power were basically Mubarak’s people…On May 24, Mubarak was ordered to stand trial on charges of premeditated murder of peaceful protestors and, if convicted, could face the death penalty. • On June 2, 2012, Mubarak was found guilty of complicity in the murders of the protestors and sentenced to life imprisonment, but this sentence was later overturned on appeal and a retrial ordered. • Protestors were upset, as other tried with Mubarak, including his two sons, had been acquitted. • On June 19, 2012, protestors took to Cairo’s Tahrir Square, angry that the SCAF had taken some of the powers that had formerly belonged to the president. Egypt

  9. On June 24, 2012, the State Election Commission announced that the Islamist Mohamed Morsi had won the presidential election….Morsi was inaugurated as the 5th President of Egypt days later, on June 30th…And everything should be ok…right? • Morsi obviously wanted to make changes that would protect the nation from the Mubarak-era’s power structure…He created a Islamist-backed draft constitution and called for a referendum to put the constitution into action. • The problem was, the Islamist-backed constitution didn’t sit well with non-islam Egyptians, and again the Country was split • On July 3, 2013, after being given the opportunity by the military to meet the people’s demands and solve the political differences, Morsi was deposed by a coup d’etat led by the minister of defense General Abdel Fattah El-Sisi. • Here’s a look at what happened Egypt

  10. A day after, 68 year old Egyptian judge Adly Mansour was sworn in as acting president over the new Egyptian Government. • The military suspended the constitution, and established a new administration headed by the chief justice, and initiated a “brutal” crackdown on the Muslim Brotherhood. • On September 1, 2013 prosecutors referred Morsi to trial on charges of inciting deadly violence. He was charged with incitement of murder and violence. He was also charged on charges of espionage. • On November 4th the trial was suspended, and said to resume on January 8th, 2014. (CBS newsstory) • On December 18, 2013 Morsialso was accused of conspiring with militant groups to carry out a wave of terrorism to destabilize the country. Egypt

  11. On Februray 27th of this year Morsi’s trial was suspended again. • Egypt now has a new constitution in place, although supported by 98.1% of voters, only 38.6% of the population turned out for the vote… • Hence the problems in Egypt continue. • It’s sad that we can watch a video like this (Egypt revolution video), but for what? • This is an example of what is still going on in Egypt. • It is the Muslim Brotherhood vs. the Military Rule Egypt

  12. Former military chief Abdul-Fattah el-Sisito run for president. • Journalists who were jailed on charges of conspiring with the Muslim Brotherhood to fabricate news, were finally allowed to speak in court, 100 days or more after being detained. • Egypt and Saudi Arabia determine the Muslim Brotherhood is a terrorist group. • 529 Members of Muslim Brotherhood sentenced to death. Recent Egypt News

  13. Like many other Middle Eastern countries, Syria has a history of violence. • An example of this is the battles the local Syrians engaged in with the French, who occupied Syria from basically 1920 until 1946. • At the beginning of the Independent Syrian Republic their was immediate upheaval (between 1946 to 1954 there were 3 governments overthrown by the military) Syria

  14. Over the years Syria has fought with other Arab states against Israel (1948), signed a pact with the Soviet Union which caused tension with Turkey (1956), has merged to form one Country with Egypt (1958-United Arab Republic), has attacked their own (Late 1970’s-Islamist Uprising, Muslim Brotherhood), and even joined forces with the United States in the 1st US lead Gulf War (1991) • They have since tried to engage in talks with Israel, which failed, and their have been no farther negotiations since March, 2000 Syria

  15. This is an ongoing armed conflict between forces loyal to the Ba’ath government and those seeking to oust it. • The Ba’ath government is the Arab Socialist Party, which was founded way back in 1947, and took power in Syria in 1963. Syrian Civil War (2011-present)

  16. The people of Syria who are looking to oust the Ba’ath government have good reason. • Syria has been under emergency law since 1963, banning public gatherings of more than 5 people, and effectively granting security forces sweeping powers of arrest and detention. • Also all political parties other then the Ba’ath party have remained banned over the years, leaving Syria a one-party state without free elections. • Rights of free expression, association and assembly were strictly controlled even before the uprising. • The authorities harass and imprison human rights activists and other critics of the government, who are often times indefinitely detained and tortured in poor prison conditions. Syrian Civil War

  17. The protests began on March 15, 2011 as the people against the governement demanded democratic and economic reform within the framework of the existing government. • In April 2011, the Syrian Army was deployed to quell the uprising and soldiers fired on demonstrators across the country. • After months of military sieges, the protests evolved into an armed rebellion. • A look at the violence Syrian Civil War

  18. By 2013, Hezbollah entered the war in support of the Syrian Army, as well the Syrian government is receiving military support from Russia and Iran. • The United States, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey are transferring weapons over to the rebels. • By July 2013 the Syrian Government was in control of 30-40% of the country’s territory and 60% of the Syrian population. • According to the United Nations, the death toll surpassed 120,000 by September of 2013. • In addition, tens of thousands of protestors, students, liberal activists, and human rights activists have been imprisoned and there are reports of widespread torture and terror in state prisons. Syrian Civil War

  19. International organizations have accused both the government and opposition forces of severe human rights violations. • The UN’s inspections in 2012 & 2013 found that the vast majority of abuses are done by the Syrian government. • 3 million Syrians have fled the country and became refugees, while millions more have been left in poor living conditions with shortage of food and drinking water. • Even chemical weapons have been used on more than one occasion, triggering strong international reactions. • Syria: Inside the Revolution (Viewer Discretion) Syrian Civil War

  20. The country we know today as Ukraine has definitely had a history of inconsistent leadership, independence, and violence. • Ukraine officially became a part of the Soviet Union in December of 1922 (after WW 1), this occurred after the country was split up with various areas of the Country joining Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Russia. The Conflict in Ukraine

  21. The civil war that eventually brought the Soviet Government to power devastated Ukraine, leaving 1.5 million people dead and hundreds of thousands homeless…Also Ukrainians had to deal with a massive famine. • Seeing an exhausted Ukraine, the Soviet Government remained very flexible with them during the 1920’s, allowing their culture and language to thrive, as well as increasing women’s rights. • Once Joseph Stalin came to power, these policies sadly were sharply reversed. Famine of 1921 in Ukraine Ukraine & The USSR

  22. During the 1930’s Stalin’s government caused another famine for the people of Ukraine and Russia, due to unrealistic demands on food production (Didn’t receive grain if quota wasn’t met) • This caused the death of up to 10 million Ukrainians…Scholars are divided as to whether this famine fits the definition of genocide, but the Ukrainian parliament and other countries recognize it as such. • Ukrainians also had to deal with “The Great Terror”, which was a campaign of political repression instituded by Joseph Stalin, in which he basically “purged” anyone who opposed his regime. • During World War II Ukraine somewhat became unified with the invasion of Poland by the Germans and Soviets. Ukraine & The USSR

  23. During World War II the majority of Ukrainians fought alongside the Soviets, although some Ukrainians created an anti-Soviet group called the Ukrainian Insurgent Army • This group, at times, allied itself with the Nazi forces, and after the War continued to fight the USSR…They used guerilla war tactics to terrorize those who they perceived as representing , or cooperating at any level with the Soviet state. • There was also another nationalist movement called the Ukrainian Liberation Army who also fought alongside the Nazis. Ukraine During WWII

  24. The republic of Ukraine was heavily damaged after the war…More than 700 cities & towns, and 28,000 villages were destroyed. • By 1950 things in “Soviet Ukraine” had improved, and after the death of Joseph Stalin (1953), more money was invested into the republic of Ukraine, resulting in better employment rates, while allowing Ukraine to become a European leader in industrial production , an important center of the Soviet arms industry, and high-tech research. Ukraine post WWII

  25. In July of 1990 a new parliament adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine, which established the principles of the Ukrainian nation, its democracy, political and economic independence, and the priority of Ukrainian law over Soviet law. • This started a period of confrontation between the central Soviet, and new republican authorities…And in August of 1991, a conservative faction of Communist leaders of the Soviet Union attempted a coup to remove Mikhail Gorbachev and to restore the Communist party’s power. • After the attempt failed, on August 24, 1991 the Ukrainian parliament adopted “The Act of Independence” in which the parliament declared Ukraine as an independent democratic state. Ukraine’s Independence

  26. A referendum and the first presidential elections took place on December 1st, 1991…That day, more then 90% of the people expressed their support for “The Act of Independence”, and they elected the chairman of the parliament, Leonid Kravchuk to serve as the first President of the country. A look into the collapse of the Soviet Union Ukraine’s Independence

  27. Ukraine was initially viewed with favorable economic conditions in comparison to the other regions of the Soviet Union. • However, the country experienced deeper economic slowdown than some of the other Soviet Republics…This left people dissatisfied, which promoted crime and corruption in Ukraine, and caused Ukrainians to protest and organize strikes. • By the end of the 1990’s the economy had stabilized, and the country has enjoyed steady, real economic growth over the last 15 years or so. • In 1996 new President Leonid Kuchma turned Ukraine into a semi-presidential republic and established a stable political system. • Kuchma was, however, criticized by opponents for corruption electoral fraud, discouraging free speech and concentrating too much power in his office. Independent Ukraine

  28. Was a series of protests and political events that took place in Ukraine from late November 2004 to January 2005. • These protests were in the immediate aftermath of the 2004 Ukrainian Presidential election which was claimed to be marred by massive corruption, voter intimidation and direct electoral fraud. • Then President Viktor Yanukovych was declared the winner of this election. • The nationwide protests succeeded when the results of the original election were annulled, and a revote was ordered by Ukraine’s Supreme Court on December 26, 2004. • The final results showed a clear victory for Viktor Yushchenko, who won with 52% of the vote, and thus the end of the Orange Revolution. The Orange Revolution

  29. In 2006, Viktor Yanukovych returned to power as Prime Minister, until a snap election was called in September of 2007 and made YuliaTymoshenko Prime Minister again. • Ukraine went into a financial crisis in 2008-2009, while the Ukrainian economy plunged by 15%. • There were also disputes with the Russians over natural gas, which lead to all gas supplies to Ukraine being stopped in 2006 and again in 2009, which lead to gas shortages in several European countries. • Viktor Yanukovych was elected President in 2010 with 48% of the votes…It was declared by International observers that this Presidential election was fairly conducted. Ukraine after the Revolution

  30. Viktor Yanukovych defeated YuliaTymoshenko by only 3.5% in this election…Tymoshenko was the former Prime Minister. • After the election, a number of criminal cases were brought against Tymoshenko…On October 11, 2011 she was convicted of embezzlement and abuse of power, and sentenced to 7 years in prison and ordered to pay $188 million. • The prosecution and conviction were viewed by many countries and most international organizations – most prominently the European Union – as politically biased. • She was released on February 22, 2014, following the latest revolution (Euromaidan Revolution), after a revision to the Ukrainian criminal code was established that effectively decriminalized the actions for which she was imprisoned. The aftermath of the 2010 Election

  31. This is the title for the current revolution that we have witnessed in Ukraine. • It all began on the night of November 21, 2013, with public protests demanding closer European Union integration. • We all know it culminated in a coup d’etat of the reigning Ukraine government run by Viktor Yanukobych. The Euromaidan Revolution

  32. The protests started out as peaceful, but due to government reaction they turned violent. • Many more protestors got involved after a violent dispersal of protestors on November 30 of 2013. • By January of 2014 the protests had been fueled by the perception of “widespread government corruption, abuse of power, and violations of the human rights of the Ukrainian people”. • After weeks of violence in the streets of Kiev, a turning point finally came in February of this year. • When enough members of the President’s party fled or defected they lost their majority in parliament, therefore parliament was able to pass a series of laws that removed police from Kiev, canceled anti-protest operations, freed political detainees (Tymoshenko), and allegedly impeached the President! The Euromaidan Revolution

  33. Viktor Yanukovych fled to Ukraine’s second largest city, Kharkiv, refusing to recognize the parliaments decisions…While the parliament assigned early elections for May of 2014. • By February 28th President Yanukovych attended a press-conference in Southern Russia, and answered questions from mostly Russian reporters. The Euromaidan Revolution

  34. Russia was unhappy with Yanukovych’s removal from power, for various reasons, one being that this change annulled the possibility of drawing Ukraine into the planned Eurasian Customs Union. • Due to this and the fact that “Russian people” were in danger (East & South regions of Ukraine, where Russian speaking population is a substantial minority and a majority in Crimea)the Russian government sent unidentified armed men into Crimea to block the Ukrainian army and law enforcement officials…And, by March 1st, Vladimir Putin actually received authorization to deploy Russian military troops into Ukraine. • Therefore on March 2nd, Russian troops advanced into Crimea and gained complete control over the peninsula. Russian Discontent

  35. So why Crimea? • Well…For starters Crimean people are majority Russian speaking, hence their pro-Russian beliefs. • Secondly, location…Crimea is a major strategic area due to its place on the coast of the Black Sea. Why Crimea

  36. On March 6 the Crimean parliament voted to “enter into the Russian federation with the rights of a subject of the Russian Federation” and announced that a referendum on the topic would be held on March 16th. • On March 15th the UN Security Council considered a resolution which would have urged member states not to recognize the results of the referendum, that that resolution was vetoed by Russia. • The referendum asked the people of these regions whether they wanted to join Russia as a federal subject, or if they wanted to restore the 1992 Crimean constitution and Crimea’s status as a part of Ukraine. • Crimea’s election commission chairman reported the election was attended by observers from 21 countries. Russian Discontent

  37. Election officials announced 97% of voters had voted in favor of joining the Russian Federation, however local media alleged their was voter fraud, and the United States, and the European Union stated they considered the vote to be illegal, and warned that their may be repercussions for the Crimea ballot. • On March 17th Crimea and Sevastopol formally declared independence as the Republic of Crimea, with both entities requesting they be admitted as constituents of the Russian Federation. • Several days after this the UN General Assembly voted 100-11 (58 abstentions) in favor of a non-binding statement opposing Russia’s annexation of the Crimean peninsula. Russia’s Discontent

  38. In a parrallel to the Crimean crisis, unrests also began in the Eastern and Southern regions of mainland Ukraine. • In several cities in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions armed men, declaring themselves as local militia, seized government buildings, and police and special police stations. • In Donetsk the rebels declared the Donetsk People’s Republic. Russia’s Discontent

  39. These hostilities escalated initially with few casualties, although eventually a pro-Russian group tried to enter the Kramatorsk military airport near Slaviansk, and 3 invaders were shot, and several were wounded. • On April 17 the foreign ministers of the European Union, Russia, Ukraine, and USA held a meeting in Geneva, Switzerland…The meeting yielded a joint diplomatic statement, in which al parties requested that all unlawful militias lay down the arms and vacate seized government buildings, and also establish a political dialogue that could lead to more autonomy for Ukraine’s region. • The Geneva pact left many issues unanswered, among the most obvious being, who will disarm the militants? Russia’s Discontent

  40. In a Wall Street Journal article Vladimir Putin “I very much hope that I will not have to exercise this right” (to send the Russian troops to Ukraine) He accused the Kyiv government of committing a serious crime by threatening to employ the military to quell unrest. • The New York Times precised that Putin reserves the right to use armed force to protect “ethnic Russians” in the whole area from Kharkiv to Odessa. • The Putin System Russia’s Discontent

  41. http://www.cbc.ca/passionateeye/episodes/mad-dog-the-secret-world-of-gaddafihttp://www.cbc.ca/passionateeye/episodes/mad-dog-the-secret-world-of-gaddafi A Look Into Libya

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