What was World War II? • 1939 – 1945 • U.S. Joined in 1941 Allied Powers ? ? ? Vs. Axis Powers ? ? ?
What Caused World War II? • The Great Depression • Treaty of Versailles • Nationalism and Racism • Euro-history contraction and unification
Europe First FDR and the Military leaders agreed that most of America’s attention needed to be focused on Europe early in the war.
Adolf Hitler • Decorated soldier in WWI (Corporal) • Failed at Art School • Grandmother was “illegitimate”
Rise of the Nazis Beer Hall Putsch: Failed attempt to take over the German government
Mein Kampf Hitler used his time in jail to write this book which is translated “My Struggle.” In it he explains his plans and strongly hints at his Anti-Semitism.
Hitler appointed Chancellor by Hindenburg German politicians tried to appease the Nazis by appointing Hitler to this position where they felt they could control him
The Burning of the Reichstag The Reichstag was Germany’s Congress. It burned to the ground. Most people believe the Nazis did it; but the Nazis blamed others and declared martial law.
Krystalnacht Nazi oppression of the Jews became official on Kristallnacht “The night of broken glass”
German Steps to War • Occupy the Saar • Occupy the Rhineland • The Anschlus (peaceful annex of Austria) • Occupy the Sudetenland (given by G.B.) • Taking All of Czechoslovakia • THE INVASION OF POLAND!!!!! • Denmark, Romania, Bulgaria and Norway all fall.
Nazi-Soviet Pact • Germany and the USSR agree to divide Poland in half and leave each other alone.
Invasion of Poland The first use of blitzkrieg The official start of World War II
Blitzkrieg • “Lightning War” • Strike at the weakest point in a line • Use all types of power quickly and with coordination • Get behind the lines and cause chaos
The Phoney War • September 1939 – May 1940 • England and France have declared war on Germany, but nothing happens on the western front.
The Maginot Line A 700 mile long series of fortresses and defensive structures built by the French.
The Miracle of Dunkirk Thousands of boats rescue 300,000 trapped English and French soldiers on the shores of the English Channel.
Battle of Britain An air battle fought between the German (Luftwaffe) and English (RAF) air forces. Hitler switched in the middle and began bombing civilians instead of military targets.
North African Campaign Infantry and tanks secure North Africa and give us a take off point to attack Italy.
Invasion of Russia Hitler goes back on his word and attacks Russia. Why? The Germans get slowed in the winter and lose at Stalingrad
Stalingrad The most decisive battle of the war and Hitler’s greatest loss.
The Italian Campaign Allies work north from Sicily to the Alps. It is very costly.
Monte Casino Biggest Battle in the Italian Campaign
D-Day The allies first presence on the continent in 3 years. It is the beginning of the end.
Saturation Bombing Night time bombing raids weaken the German war machine.
Yalta Conference The USSR, England and the USA divide up Europe for post-war responsibilities.
The Battle of the Bulge Hitler’s last offensive It almost works
Little Boy Fat Man