Form and Notation How to Understand Music
Song Forms • AB - strophic form/binary form • ABA – sonata form/ternary form • AABA – 32-bar song form • ABACADA – rondo form • BLUES FORM – Phrase 1 I III Phrase 2 IV IVIVIV Phrase 3 V IV I I
Binary Form or Strophic Form (Do I have to call it that?) • Binary form is otherwise known as AB form. A song in AB form will have a verse and chorus. Example: Jingle Bells Is there anyone who doesn’t know that holiday song?
Binary Form (cont.) Part A: Dashing through the snow in a one-horse open sleigh. O’er the fields we go, laughing all the way. Bells on bobtail ring, making spirits bright. What fun it is to ride and sing a sleighing song tonight. • Part B: Jingle Bells, jingle bells. Jingle all the way. Oh, what fun it is to ride in a one-horse open sleigh. Hey! Repeat A and B in order as many times as possible!
Sonata Form or Ternary Form • A B A • EXPOSITION DEVELOPMENT RECAPITULATION • 1st Theme Development of 1 All Themes from A or more themes from “A” • (1st-tonic) (Dominant Key) (Tonic) • 2nd Theme • (2nd-dominant • Closing Theme • (Closing-dominant)
Have you heard of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony? • Let’s listen to the first movement. Notice how the motive of da-da-da-da repeats throughout the piece. Also, listen as I point out the “A” section and the “B” section and how the “A” section comes back at the end in a not so subtle way. Let’s look at the diagram on the next page to identify the parts. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rRgXUFnfKIY
Sonata Form or Ternary Form A B A EXPOSITION DEVELOPMENT RECAPITULATION 1st Theme Development of 1 All Themes from A or more themes from “A” (1st-tonic) (Dominant Key) (Tonic) 2nd Theme (2nd-dominant Closing Theme (Closing-dominant)
ABA Song • Example: Twinkle, twinkle little star A: Twinkle, twinkle little star, How I wonder what you are. B: Up above the world so high, Like a diamond in the sky. • The standard ABA form (ternary or sonata form) popular song is divided into 8 (A)/8 (A)/8 (B)/8 (A) or 32 bars of music.
What song can you name that is in AABA song form? • An art piece would be something most of you have heard, a piece called Fur Elise (For Elise, his student) by Beethoven. • Your turn!
Rondo, or ABACA, Form • Rondo form involves starting with the A section, having the A section in the middle, and ending with the A section. Examples: ABACA ABACADA ABACADAEA Listening example: Turkish Rondo by Mozart http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=juLRqSV45vo
Blues Form • This form is the basis of most real blues songs and most early rock and roll songs. Example: Hound Dog by Lieber and Stoller (famously sung by Elvis Presley) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5XUAg1_A7IE&feature=fvwrel (Big Mama Thornton) Phrase 1 I III Phrase 2 IV IVIVIV Phrase 3 V IV I I
One last form: Through-composed • A through-composed song fits NO standard form. Example: The Star-Spangled Banner. It’s form is as follows: A A B C THE END
The Concerto and the Symphony QUESTION: Do I really have to know this? ANSWER: YES
What is a Concerto? • Concerto = concert = together • Concerto grosso - Piece in 3 contrasted movements with a small body (group) of instruments heard in alternate and together with the larger orchestra. Large group: Ripieno or tutti (meaning full in Italian) Small group: Concertino (meaning small in Italiano)
What is a Concerto? (cont.) • This form originated during the baroque period. • Composers wrote for whatever instruments were available to the group. • Into the classical age, the concertino (small group) got smaller to the point where they became more soloists with orchestral accompaniment. • a) Soloists became the flash or sizzle of the piece. • b) “Violinistic”refers to the flashiness.
What is a Symphony? • Symphony = from the Greek meaning sounding together. • A symphony is now a SONATA FOR ORCHESTRA. • The 18th c. operatic overture was the original version consisted and consisted of 3 movements (quick-slow-quick). It developed into a 4 movement work during the classical period.
The Parts of a Symphony • Movement 1: Sonata Form (usually the most • important movement) • Movement 2: Slower and more lyrical • Movement 3: Minuet and Trio, or Scherzo • Movement 4: Usually Rondo Form (ABACA) or Sonata Form (ABA) ( a longer piece of music)
Let’s watch an orchestra play a symphony. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2HbMzu1aQW8
The Treble Staff • . • First, the treble staff:
The Bass Staff • Second, the bass staff:
And now, the Grand Staff! • The following figure shows a generous range of notes on the grand staff and how they relate to the keyboard.
And, how about them notes and rests? • Let’s go to a website to help us. • www.musictheory.net
What is an accidental? • A sharp raises a scale tone 1/2 step. The sign is placed before the note. • A flat lowers a scale tone 1/2 step. The sign is placed before the note. • A natural indicates that the tone should not be sharpped or flatted for one measure only. • .
Now we can construct the diatonic major and minor scales. • A major or minor scale must use all 7 letters of the alphabet. None can be repeated. C Major: C D E F G A B C No sharps or flats A minor: A B C D E F G A No sharps or flats. Why are the above scales like this?
Steps to constructing the scales. It’s patterns, kid! • A major (M) or minor (m) diatonic scale consists of 2 types of tones: 1. Whole tone (w) or 2 half steps 2. Half tone or semitone (h): the distance from one note to the note next to it on a music keyboard. Example: E to F, F# to G, G to Ab
Let’s compare scale phone numbers! • The major scale telephone number is: 2 2 1 – 2 2 2 1 or w w h – w w w h • The minor scale telephone number is: 2 1 2 – 2 1 2 2 or w h w = w h w w • 2 = 2 half steps or 1 whole step • 1 = 1 half step
Examples of Scales • Major scale examples: F G A Bb C D E F called F Major G A B C D E F# G called G Major • Minor scale examples: A B C D E F G A G A Bb C D Eb F G
Sometimes the scales have relatives! • A relative minor starts on the 6th tone of its relative major scale and shares all the same notes including sharps or flats (just like you might look like your relatives). • A parallel minor starts on the 1 tone of a major scale and DOES NOT share the same notes (This one is adopted!).