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Music Notation and Encoding

Music Notation and Encoding

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Music Notation and Encoding

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  1. Music Notation and Encoding ISMIR Graduate School, Barcelona 2004 Musicology 2 Frans Wiering, ICS, Utrecht University

  2. Outline • Common Music Notation • Other notations • Encoding music notation • Music corpora

  3. How to Read Music Without Really TryingDonald Byrd, School of Music, Indiana UniversityRev. August 2004 (adapted FW) • Four basic parameters of a definite-pitched musical note • pitch: how high or low the sound is: perceptual analog of frequency • duration: how long the note lasts • loudness: perceptual analog of amplitude • timbre or tone quality • Above is decreasing order of importance for most Western music

  4. CMN shows at least six aspects of music: NP1. Pitches (how high or low): on vertical axis NP2. Durations (how long): indicated by note/rest shapes NP3. Loudness: indicated by signs like p, mf, etc. NP4. Timbre (tone quality): indicated with words like “violin”, “pizzicato”, etc. Start times: on horizontal axis Voicing: mostly indicated by staff; in complex cases also shown by stem direction, beams, etc. Also shown: measures (beat groups) pitch modifiers (flats and sharps) CMN (Common/Conventional Music Notation)(after Don Byrd)

  5. The keyboard (www.keyscreen.com)

  6. Durations (American English)(library.thinkquest.org) • Whole • Half • Quarter • Eighth • Sixteenth • etc. duration tricks: rests:

  7. Rhythm and meter • rhythm: the pattern of (relative) durations • measure: recurring beat pattern • meter: type of measure, expressed in fraction • number of beats • type of beat • eg: 4/4, 7/2

  8. Extensibility of notation (representational completeness) • CMN seems closed system (like an alphabet), but it isn’t • historical change • creativity • precision (Mahler scores!) • abbreviation • example: chord abbreviations, as in fake books http://www.eddielandsberg.com/jeanine_800x965.jpg • Extremes of CMN collected by Don Byrd at http://php.indiana.edu/~donbyrd/CMNExtremes.htm

  9. Before CMN (1) describe differences to CMN a little neumes, c. 900 (from New Grove) plainchant, 17th c. (www.loc.gov)

  10. Before CMN (2) (from DIAMM) mensural notation, early 16th c. (www.loc.gov)

  11. Tablature (exx: New Grove) 18th c. lute tablature klavarskribo (20th c.) koto tablature

  12. Different aspects of notation • mnemonic • neumes • framework for improvisation • fake book • basso continuo • John Cage • performer instruction • (lute) tablature • much CMN • composer’s intention • 19th/20th century classical music

  13. What is a basic musical ‘unit’ • example units • song • the performance/recording • classical music • work: independent creation, realized in (more than one) performance and codified in notation • early music • instance: piece exists in many different forms • (but see also Chopin first editions!) • number of voices, levels of elaboration etc. • Opera • improvisation • framework: archetypal melody, chord pattern, ‘raga’ • consequences: • the work ‘is’ not always the notation • not all aspects of notation are always equally important (may reflect local circumstances rather than intention) • it may be necessary to derive supplementary information • but how?

  14. Summary • principal dimensions: pitch and time • additional dimensions • complexity • non-CM notations • relation to basic musical unit

  15. Encoding music notation • General characteristics • Purposes of music encoding before MIR • Surveys • Requirements • Some (once) popular encoding systems • Unification and interchange • Music corpora • What if you want to work with encoded notation

  16. General characteristics • translating notation to digital representation • or note-like information, as in MIDI • alphanumeric and binary encoding systems • very many formats have been proposed and are still in use • interchange is a problem • generally not designed for retrieval

  17. Purposes of music encoding before MIR • Music printing and publishing • DARMS project and encoding (60s-80s) • proprietary systems since the 80s (Finale, Sibelius) • encoding systems tend to be exhaustive • Cataloguing • RISM project: cataloguing all music written before 1800. Beginnings in Plaine and easie code • non-exhaustive systems • Music analysis • ESAC: folksong collections • Humdrum: flexible encoding system for arbitrary (combination of) parameters • Sound Control • MIDI • playing instructions

  18. Surveys • www.music-notation.info • Gerd Castan • 71 different music encoding systems listed with links to software and web pages • definitely incomplete • Beyond MIDI. The Handbook of Musical Codes. ed. Eleanor Selfridge-Field (1997) • c. 27 music encoding systems, detailed descriptions • non-proprietory formats only

  19. Requirements • some ideas • representational completeness • aptness • extensibility • efficient • structure follows music • mnemonic • More on creating encoding systems: • David Huron (1992) • Beyond Midi (chapter by David Halperin)

  20. Some (once) popular encoding systems • Plaine And Easie Code • Barry S. Brook, Murray Gould (1964) • writing music with a typewriter • (card) catalogues [right:] ''4CC/GG/AA/GG/FF/EE/D8.D6E/2C://: [left: ] ,4C'C/EC/FC/EC/D,B/'C,A/FG/2C://: • DARMS • Stefan Bauer-Mengelberg (1963); Raymond Erickson • cheap printing of avant-garde music, very rich encoding • set standard for later encoding systems • later: analytical applications !I1 !G,!F !M2:4 6Q 6Q / 10Q 10Q / 11Q 11Q / 10Q 10Q / 9Q 9Q / 8Q 8Q / 7Q 7E. 8S / 6H :/: !-50 K next line employs the 'carry feature' for durations $ !M2:4 4Q 11 / 13 11 / 14 11 / 13 11 / 12 10 / 11 9 / 7 8 / 4H :/:

  21. ESAC Helmut Schaffrath (1980s) analysis of folksong monophonic; phrase structure encoded. Used for testing automatic segmenting (Jane Singer?) MuseData Walter Hewlett, late 1980s logical content of musical scores printing, analysis, generation of sound right: KEY[C0000 16 C2/4] MEL[1__1__ 5__5__ 6__6__ 5__5__ 4__4__ 3__3__ 2__2_.3 1___] left: KEY[C0000 4 C2/4] MEL[--1-1 -3-1 -4-1 -3-1 -2--7 -1--6 --4--5 --1_] More $ Q:4 K:0 T:2/4 S:2 C1:4 C2:22 S C5 4 1 q d1 C5 4 1 q d1 back 8 C3 4 2 q u2 C4 4 2 q d2 measure 2 G5 4 1 q d1 G5 4 1 q d1 back 8 E4 4 2 q d2 C4 4 2 q d2

  22. David Huron, c. 1990 http://csml.som.ohio-state.edu/Humdrum/ syntax for developing (light-weight) encoding systems data organised in parallel ‘spines’ humdrum representation for CMN: kern humdrum tools (UNIX) sample analytical problems (total: 350): Locate instances of the pitch sequence D-S-C-H in Shostakovich's music. Are German drinking songs more likely to be in triple meter. Determine whether Haydn tends to avoid V-IV progressions. Find all woodwind quintets in compound meters that contain a change of key. Classify cadences as either authentic, plagal or deceptive. Determine whether the words `high,' `hoch,' or `haut' tend to coincide with higher pitches in a vocal work. many can be rephrased as music IR problems **kern **kern *staff2 *staff1 =1- =1- *clefF4 *clefG2 *k[] *k[] *M2/4 *M2/4 *^ * 2ryy 4C 4cc . 4c 4cc =2 =2 =2 2ryy 4e 4gg . 4c 4gg =3 =3 =3 2ryy 4f 4aa . 4c 4aa =4 =4 =4 2ryy 4e 4gg . 4c 4gg =5 =5 =5 2ryy 4d 4ff . 4B 4ff =6 =6 =6 2ryy 4c 4ee . 4A 4ee =7 =7 =7 Humdrum

  23. controlling electronic instruments pitch represented by key number different types of events note on/off, and many others used for (very lossy) data exchange Not mentioned Guido Score MFile 1 2 1024 MTrk 0 TimeSig 2/4 24 8 0 KeySig 0 major 0 Tempo 500000 16385 Meta TrkEnd TrkEnd MTrk 0 Meta TrkName "Acoustic Grand Piano" 0 PrCh ch=1 p=0 0 On ch=1 n=72 v=64 0 On ch=1 n=48 v=64 1024 Off ch=1 n=72 v=0 1024 On ch=1 n=72 v=64 1024 Off ch=1 n=48 v=0 1024 On ch=1 n=60 v=64 2048 Off ch=1 n=72 v=0 2048 Off ch=1 n=60 v=0 2048 On ch=1 n=79 v=64 2048 On ch=1 n=64 v=64 3072 Off ch=1 n=79 v=0 3072 On ch=1 n=79 v=64 3072 Off ch=1 n=64 v=0 3072 On ch=1 n=60 v=64 4096 Off ch=1 n=79 v=0 MIDI

  24. Unification and interchange • formats designed for interchange between applications • rich descriptions of musical content • SMDL • ISO 10743. Based on HyTime/SGML • domains • logical (cantus, the abstract work); markup defined • visual (score); container • gestural (performance); container • analytical; container • never used; concepts circulate • NIFF • interchange of music notation data, page-oriented • was supported by part of the industry • still alive???

  25. MusicXML • developed by Michael Good (www.recordare.com) • quotes from the site: • open format, usable by as many applications as possible • Dolet software uses MusicXML to provide a "universal translator" between music notation programs.

  26. Music corpora (1) • RISM (PAEC) • 470.000 incipits on CD-ROM • MIDI (everywhere) • http://www.classicalarchives.com/ (8000 works) • restricted access • uneven quality • CCARH • http://www.ccarh.org • Musedata, Humdrum (nearly 4000 movements of classical works) • sources: out-of copyricht editions of Great Classical Composers • quality of encoding

  27. Music corpora (2) • Graphic formats • Choral Public Domain Library (http://www.cpdl.org/) 7800 scores • sheet music, mostly in graphic formats • Esac • http://www.esac-data.org/ • 20.000 songs and instrumental melodies, mostly from Germany, Poland and China, with minor collections from other (mostly European) countries • least incomplete survey: • http://php.indiana.edu/~donbyrd/MusicTestCollections.HTML • what happens to music corpora after a while • sad case of Princeton Josquin project (1970s) • most punchcards are lost • what remains is unusable

  28. What if you want to work with encoded notation • developing yet another encoding system may not be very wise • most encoding systems are richer than necessary for most music IR applications • get scores (as ‘ground truth’ for signal processing?) • collect from the Internet • conversion • not too many • quality issue • encode scores • extremely timeconsuming • OCR • gets better and better • work of Ichiro Fujinaga (will be at ISMIR) • still relatively high error percentages