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Phytoplankton. MARE 444 Lecture 2. Phytoplankton. the majority of the plants in the ocean are planktonic unicellular algae called phytoplankton. some can be caught be nets, others can only be collected by filtering or centrifugation (e.g., nano- and picoplankton). Phytoplankton.

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Phytoplankton

MARE 444

Lecture 2

phytoplankton
Phytoplankton

the majority of the plants in the ocean are planktonic unicellular algae called phytoplankton.

some can be caught be nets, others can only be collected by filtering or centrifugation (e.g., nano- and picoplankton).

phytoplankton1
Phytoplankton

GroupPhycological Terminology

Diatoms Bacilliariophyceae

Dinoflagellates Dinophyceae

Microflagellates Haptophyta, Prymnesiophyta,

Chrysomonadales,

Cryptomonadales

Picoplankton Photoautotrophs < 2μm

Cyanobacteria Cyanophyta, photosynth bact.

Prochlorococcus Photosynth bacteria

Eukaryotic Pico Very small, struct. advanced

phytoplankton2
Phytoplankton

Vital role in marine food chain

4000 species of phytoplankton have been described, new species are continually being described

At least 13 classes of marine phytoplankton are distinguished, representing a wide variety of organisms

phytoplankton3
Phytoplankton

Phytoplankton account for about half of global primary production

types of phytoplankton
Types of Phytoplankton

Bacteria and cyanobacteria

Diatoms

Dinoflagellates

Others

photosynthetic bacteria
Photosynthetic Bacteria

Prokaryotic (Kingdom Monera)

Contain bacterial chlorophyll (different from the other chlorophyll molecules)

cyanobacteria
Cyanobacteria

Prokaryotic (Kingdom Monera)

Contain chlorophyll-a (like eukaryotic autotrophs)

cyanobacteria1
Cyanobacteria

Important primary producers

Small size (1-2μm)- large SAV ratio

Sink or rise very slowly

Maximize nutrient absorption

Reduces grazing loss

cyanobacteria2
Cyanobacteria

Distribution

the diatoms
The Diatoms

Microalgae

diatom cellular structure
Diatom Cellular Structure

(chrysolaminarin)

(chlorophyll a and c,

fucoxanthin, etc)

planktonic diatoms
Planktonic diatoms

Silica shell and lack of flagella = sinking

diatoms evolved various strategies to counter sinking

chains

spines

oil droplets

ionic regulation - internal ion concentration is lower than external seawater = reduction in density

dinoflagellate characteristics
Dinoflagellate Characteristics

Typically 2 flagella

Large nucleus (looks like a fingerprint)

Chlorophylls a and c

Accessory pigments (ß-carotene, peridinin, xanthophylls)

Food reserve is starch

dinoflagellate characteristics2
Dinoflagellate Characteristics

Some are autotrophic, others are auxotrophic, others are mixotrophic, others are heterotrophic

dinoflagellate taxonomy
Dinoflagellate Taxonomy

Armored

plates (numbers, shapes)

Naked

size and shape

cingular position, displacement, and overhang

sulcal placement and intrusion

presence/shape of apical groove

dinoflagellate ecology
Dinoflagellate Ecology

Dinos tend to occur in the summer and early fall when nutrients are more depleted and seas are calmer

microflagellates
Microflagellates

Some (e.g., coccolithophorids) are very common

slide26

Coccolithophores

Unicell containing a haptonema between two smooth flagella

Haptonema - a coiled appendage that is used for feeding and sensory purposes

Chlorophylls a, c1, and c2, carotenoids

Chrysolaminarin

slide27

Coccolithophores

Single regular calcareous plates

slide28

Prokaryotic Picoplankton

Prochlrophyta

Often most abundant phtoplankton in oligotrophic, tropical waters

Have traits in common with several taxonomic groups

bacteria, cyanobacteria, green algae

slide29

Eukaryotic Picoplankton

Typically green algae (Chlorophyta)

Contain chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids, xanthophylls

Starch is the food reserve

1, 2, 4, or 8 flagella