Geminate Verbs in the Perfect Form A geminate is a word that has identical second and third root consonants, such as סָבַב and אָרַר. In several of the perfect verb forms, the first twin consonant assimilates into the second twin consonant and manifests itself as a dagesh. In the case of אָרַר, the ר cannot take a dagesh, and as a result, the vowel under the first consonant lengthens according to the principles of compensatory lengthening introduced in lesson 2. In cases where the first twin consonant assimilates into the second twin consonant, notice the addition of theוֹ before the suffix. The presence of theוֹ before the suffix is a good indication that the verb is a geminate.
Pronominal Suffixes with עִם and אֶת־ The words עִם and אֶת־ both mean “with” and can receive pronominal suffixes as follows: (not to be confused with עַם people – we’ll study the difference in a moment) (not to be confused with the direct object marker—we’ll see the difference on the next slide)
Pronominal Suffixes with עִם and אֶת־ The words עִם and אֶת־ both mean “with” and can receive pronominal suffixes as follows: Main difference: hireq (with)vs. patakh (people)
Pronominal Suffixes with עִם and אֶת־ Note the difference between the direct object marker (listed first) and “with” (listed second): אֵת \ אֶת־ Direct Object Marker אֵת \ אֶת־ with, together with Differences: vowels & dagesh
The Resumptive Pronoun and אֲשֶׁר A resumptive pronoun is a pronoun that refers back to a previously realized item within the same syntactic structure. For example: “The man who died” (who is the resumptive pronoun); “The girl to whom I spoke” (whom is the resumptive pronoun).
The Resumptive Pronoun and אֲשֶׁר In lesson 5 we learned that the word אֲשֶׁר can be translated as who, which, or that, depending on context. We will now learn how to create the Hebrew equivalent of the English phrases to whom and for whom. אֲשֶׁר is not usually combined with a preposition to create phrases such as to whom or for whom. Instead, a pronoun is included in the relative clause that אֲשֶׁר introduces. Note the following examples:
The Resumptive Pronoun and אֲשֶׁר In some cases, adverbs such as שָׁם and שָׁמָּה can be used instead of a pronoun. For example: When אֲשֶׁר refers to a verb’s direct object, the pronoun is optional. For example:
The Resumptive Pronoun and אֲשֶׁר Generally, אֲשֶׁר corresponds with the relative pronouns who, which, or that. In some cases, אֲשֶׁר takes on a relative meaning such as that or which. אֲשֶׁר can also take the position of a subordinating conjunction such as since or because. The possible uses of אֲשֶׁר as a relative pronoun or a subordinating conjunction are extensive. For our purposes, be aware of these possible uses as you determine how to translate אֲשֶׁר. Note the translation values for אֲשֶׁר in the following examples:
The Resumptive Pronoun and אֲשֶׁר The examples from the previous page are the most common exceptions that you will encounter. Additionally, keep in mind that the presence of אֲשֶׁר is not required to introduce a relative clause. אֲשֶׁר is more commonly found in prose than poetry. For example: