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phyllis-martinez
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Controls: climate

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  1. Controls: climate

  2. Controls: soils, parent material

  3. Controls: topography

  4. Controls: disturbance

  5. Controls: humans Self-scouring, steel-bladed plow <0.01% of pre-settlement prairie in Illinois remains

  6. Controls: herbivory

  7. Controls: microclimate

  8. Controls are not constant; they have changed through time For example: • Continental drift • Mountain building and rain shadows • Climate change • Human alteration to land cover; greenhouse gas emissions

  9. Biomes during last glacial maximum

  10. Trees following last glacial maximum

  11. Latitudinal movement of the solar equator causes seasons

  12. Solar equatormoves seasonally

  13. Seasonal cycles in temperate lakes

  14. Variation in temperature generates winds. Winds drive ocean currents, which redistribute heat and moisture. clockwise counter- clockwise upwelling

  15. Upwelling currents bring cold, nutrient-rich water to the surface & lead to high productivity

  16. Effects of El Niño on climate

  17. Effects of El Niño on crop production

  18. Stronger El Niño events in recent decades

  19. Fundamental niches and climatic envelopes for hypothetical 20th- and 21st-century climates • Shifts in distributions (1-3) • Community • disaggregation (1 & 3) • New communities (2 & 3) • Extinction (4) Williams et al. 2007. PNAS.

  20. Maps of novel 21st-century climates and disappearing 20th-century climates 12-39% 4-20% 10-48% 4-20% Assumes no dispersal limitation; w/ disperal limitation the %s approx. double Williams et al. 2007. PNAS.

  21. Summary • Ecosystems are complex, resulting from many interacting factors • Ecosystems and their controls are not constant; they have changed through time • Humans now have a dominant influence on Earth’s climate and ecosystems • The present helps us interpret the past and anticipate future changes