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HIV and AIDS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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HIV and AIDS. Retrovirus -> Primate Lentivirus Group. Retrovirus. Linear, 2 ss +RNA tRNA lys Reverse Transcriptase Helical core Icosahedral capsid Phospholipid Envelope Spikes. HIV-1. HIV Structure Generalized. HIV Structure: ID. HIV Envelope. Derived from host cell plasma membrane

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Presentation Transcript
hiv and aids

HIV and AIDS

Retrovirus ->

Primate Lentivirus Group

retrovirus
Retrovirus
  • Linear, 2 ss +RNA
  • tRNA lys
  • Reverse Transcriptase
  • Helical core
  • Icosahedral capsid
  • Phospholipid Envelope
  • Spikes
hiv envelope
HIV Envelope
  • Derived from host cell plasma membrane
  • Viral proteins as spikes
    • Cap, gp 120
      • Binds to CD4
      • Linked to TM stem
      • Can change shape
    • Stem, gp 41
      • Holds cap in envelope
      • Responsible for membrane fusion
matrix p17
Matrix, p17
  • Continuous inside membrane lining for envelope
  • Icosahedral
  • Functions
    • Anchors TM, p41
    • Assist in viral penetration
    • Transport proviral integration complex across nuclear envelope
    • Localizes virion assembly
hiv core
HIV core
  • RNA genome
  • Nucleocapsid
  • Reverse Transcriptase (RT)
  • Integrase (IN)
  • HIV core appears conical / helical
nucleocapsid
Nucleocapsid
  • NC
    • p 6, 9
    • helical
  • RNA
    • 2 ss +
    • Multiple genes
  • RT
    • vRNA  vDNA
  • tRNA lys 3
    • Primer for RT
  • Integrase, p 32
    • Integration of vDNA into host DNA
rna genes for hiv
RNA genes for HIV
  • All retroviruses have
    • 5’ – gag – pol – env – 3’
  • HIV have
    • 3 genes for replication: gag, pol, env
    • 3 genes for regulation: tat, rev, nef
    • 3 genes for auxiliary: vir, vpr, vpu
hiv rna
HIV RNA
  • Gag genes
    • Capsid protein, p 24
    • Matrix protein, p 17
    • Nucleocapsid, p6, p9
  • Pol genes
    • Protease, p 11, p9
    • RT, p55, p63
    • Integrase, p 32
  • Env genes
    • Surface glycoprotein, gp120
    • Transmembrane protein, gp 41
other proteins
Other Proteins
  • Vpu
    • Viral protein U
    • Enhances viral particle release
  • Vpr
    • Viral protein R
    • Changes ion channel activity, vRNA -> nucleus
  • Protease
    • Hydrolytic enzyme used for viral replication
    • Cleaves large viral proteins into functional peptides
more proteins
More Proteins
  • Nef : negative factor
    • Signal transduction
      • Binds to cellular protein kinases
    • Endocytosis of surface receptors
      • Down grades CD4 protiens
    • Destruction
      • Apoptosis of non-infected cells
attachment
Attachment
  • SU envelope protein [gp 120]
    • Binds to CD4
    • Infects macrophages
  • Co-receptor chemokine
    • CCR5 on macrophages
    • CXCR4 on T-helper
penetration and uncoating
Penetration and Uncoating
  • TM, gp 41
    • Conformational change after SU, gp 120 binds and co-receptor stimulated
  • Partial uncoating
    • In cytoplasm
genome replication
Genome Replication
  • V-tRNA as primer
  • RT  ss+ RNA  ss-DNA  ds DNA
  • Proviral DNA
    • Linear
    • circular
  • Integrase
    • Incorporates vDNA into host cell genome
translation
Translation
  • Proviral DNA
    • Create mRNA
    • Create new ss+ RNA
  • Fresh vRNA enters cytoplasm
  • Latent
  • Mutations
  • Protease
    • Cleaving of viral proteins in order to have functional protein products
assembly and budding
Assembly and Budding
  • Capsid assembly at plasma membrane
  • Host plasma membrane for viral envelope
  • Viral proteins become spikes on envelope
hiv cycle animation
HIV Cycle Animation

http://www.galaxygoo.org/hiv/hiv_lifecycle.html

transmission
Transmission
  • Horizontal
    • Blood – 90%
    • Organ, transfusion
    • Coitus
  • Vertical
  • Direct
    • Infected cell
    • Body fluids
signs and symptoms
Prodromal

Early Phase

Flu-like

Middle Phase

Asymptomatic

Destruction / Loss > than replacement

Late Phase

AIDS

Stages of HIV

Category A

lymphadenopathy

Category B

Opportunistic infections

Category C

AIDS

Persistant opportunistic infections

Signs and Symptoms
diagnosis
Diagnosis
  • IgG
    • Infection
    • Seroconversion
    • Verify with Western Blot
  • ELISA
    • p24 capsid antigen
  • PCR
    • vRNA
hiv animation for drug tx
HIV Animation for Drug Tx

http://www.hopkins-aids.edu/hiv_lifecycle/hivcycle_txt.html