Unit 2
1 / 23

UNIT 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

UNIT 2. Part 2 THE CLASSICAL ERA IN THE EAST. The Big Questions. What were the major accomplishments of the civilizations of India and China during the “Classical Era”? How did these civilizations compare with the ones in the West?

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'UNIT 2' - phong

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Unit 2


Part 2


The big questions

The Big Questions

What were the major accomplishments of the civilizations of India and China during the “Classical Era”?

How did these civilizations compare with the ones in the West?

What factors contributed to the rise and fall of empires and dynasties in the East?



In the centuries when Persia, Greece, and Rome dominated the West, a different series of empires and dynasties flourished in the east.

India witnessed a flowering of Hindu and Buddhist cultures, influencing all of South and Southeast Asia

China saw the emergence of great philosophers, who set the tone for much of Chinese thought and tradition.

The aryan invasion

After the collapse of Harappan civilization, the Dravidian people living in western India were conquered by the Aryan invaders (c.1500 B.C.)

Some people believe they came from central Asia

Others believe Aryan culture developed locally

The aryan culture

Nomadic herders and warriors

Developed iron weapons and horse-drawn chariots

They continued to push native peoples farther south as they moved into the Ganges River valley

By 900 B.C., they had formed city-states (each ruled by its own ruler)

Developed Sanskrit writing (only taught to members of higher castes)

Introduced Hinduism

Developed a caste system (rigid social order)

Left side
Left Side

The mixing of Aryan and native peoples led to a new social order

The new rules allowed only Aryans to occupy the higher social classes

There were 5 castes

Caste lines were rigid and based on birth




Fill in thehinduism section of your religions chart

Major beliefs: believe in many deities, but each of these gods is a manifestation of one Supreme Being. Reincarnation – the belief that at death a person’s soul is reborn as another living thing. Karma refers to a person’s behavior in life which determines one’s form in the next life.

Sacred objects: The Ganges River – has the power to wash away sin and evil. The cow – sacred and religious…Hindus do not eat beef.

The spread of buddhism
The Spread of Buddhism

A new religion, Buddhism, began around 500 B.C.

Spread quickly and attracted many followers

Missionaries helped it spread throughout India and other Southeast Asian countries (Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Indochina)

It also spread to central Asia, China, Japan, and Korea

It was popular among many groups because it rejected the caste system



    • Basic philosophy: based on the idea of self-denial and meditation

    • Gods: do not believe in a supreme being

    • Holy books: no major holy book, but teachings can be found in the Sutras

    • Major beliefs: Four Noble Truths – explain life’s meaning. Eightfold Path – must be followed to achieve Nirvana. Nirvana – a state of eternal peace and bliss and release from the soul’s endless reincarnation.

Left side1
Left Side


Reason for spread



Create a venn diagram showing what beliefs Buddhism borrowed from Hinduism

Create a chart comparing the spread of Buddhism with the spread of Christianity

The mauryan empire 321 b c 232 b c
The Mauryan Empire (321 B.C. – 232 B.C.)

  • Stretched from Afghanistan to the Ganges River

  • Begun by King Chandragupta who challenged the Greeks

  • His grandson, Asoka was the next great ruler of India

    • Fought a series of wars to enlarge the empire

    • After 8 years of warfare, he renounced violence and converted to Buddhism

    • Won his people’s loyalty by acts of kindness and promoting welfare and happiness

    • Promoted religious freedom

    • Improved roads, built hospitals and promoted education

    • Built Buddhist shrines and sent missionaries to other lands

    • After his death, the empire began to fall apart

The gupta empire 320 a d 535 a d
The Gupta Empire (320 A.D. – 535 A.D.)

  • United the territory around the Ganges

  • Emperors encouraged peace, prosperity, and trade with foreign lands, especially China

  • Had a “Golden Age” of Hindu Culture for nearly two centuries

    • Built universities

    • Supported learning, the arts (colorful murals), and literature (poems and plays written in Sanskrit)

    • Scholars excelled in math (concept of zero, idea of infinity, a decimal system, Arabic numerals)

    • Astronomy (Earth was round and rotated on its axis, solar year, movement of heavenly bodies)

    • Medicine (set bones, skin grafts)

  • Declined when invaded by the Huns


  • Chinese history is generally divided into periods based upon the dynasty that governed China at the time

  • From 1027 B.C. to 220 A.D., China was ruled by three main dynasties

  • Like the flowering of Greek and Roman culture, China also witnessed some of its greatest cultural achievements in these centuries

Zhou dynasty 1027 b c 221 b c
Zhou Dynasty (1027 B.C. – 221 B.C)

Conquered the Shang dynasty

Justified rule as the Mandate of Heaven (ruler chosen by heaven and heaven would overthrow bad rulers)

Gave land to nobles in exchange for military service

Conquered neighboring peoples

6th century B.C., local nobles became too powerful and China was plunged into civil war

Greatest legacy of Zhou was the work of two philosophers, Confucius and Lao Tzu.


  • Add Confucianism and Daoism to your Religions chart

    • Confucius – taught ideas he believed were the basic order of the universe. Stressed following traditional ways to achieve peace and harmony. All was based on social obligations.

      • Obedience and order

      • Importance of family

      • Family served as model for society (duty, good deeds, civilized way of life)

    • Lao Tzu (Daoism or Taoism) – believed that nature has a “way” in which it moves. People should accept the way rather than to try to resist it.

      • Respect for nature and harmony

      • Use contemplation and abandon earthly concerns

Qin dynasty 221 b c 206 b c
QIN DYNASTY (221 B.C. – 206 B.C. )

  • Unified under the lord of Qin (Shih Huang-ti)

    • First to call himself emperor

    • All power should be in the hands of a single, absolute ruler

    • Strong government was needed to punish bad acts

    • Harsh ruler, rejected Confucianism (burned books and persecuted scholars)

  • Accomplishments

    • Divided China into districts

    • Constructed roads and canals (uniting distant parts of China)

    • Uniform system of writing and measurement

    • Joined a number of protective walls to create the Great Wall of China

Left side2
Left Side

Create a cartoon about an accomplishment of the Qin or Zhou dynasties

Han dynasty 206 b c 220 a d
HAN DYNASTY (206 B.C. – 220 A.D.)

  • Unified China for over 400 years following years of civil war

  • Political achievements

    • Established civil service examinations based on Confucian ideas

    • Strengthened the power of the emperor by weakening the independence of nobles

    • Commoners could move up the social ladder

    • Spread Confucian ideals

  • Innovations

    • Paper

    • Lead-glazed ceramics

    • Improved silk-weaving


  • Economy

    • Established overland trade routes, the Silk Road, connecting trade with the Roman Empire and other regions

    • Exported silk, iron, and bronze for gold, linen cloth, glass, ivory, animal hides, horses and cattle

  • Social and cultural

    • Buddhism was introduced

    • Wealthy families had many children (sons served in government and daughters married into other wealthy families)

    • Marriages were arranged

    • Women were subordinate to men

    • Boys went to public schools

    • Old people were well taken care of by their families

Fall of the han dyansty

Ruled an immense empire for 400 years

Han emperors were weakened by a series of rebellions

Provincial governors raised taxes and raised their own armies (some became local warlords)

Economic hardship and population growth

Emperor turned over power to a warlord and Han China collapsed into a series of civil wars and split into separate states

Left side3

Create a diagram for the reasons for the decline of the Han Dynasty describing political, economic, and military weaknesses.


Fall of the Han Dynasty