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Chapter 33 . The Building of Global Empires. Imperialism. Begin by attaching as many concepts under the banner of imperialism that contribute to it and its ‘operational definition’. Foundations of Empire.

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Chapter 33


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chapter 33

Chapter 33

The Building of Global Empires

imperialism
Imperialism
  • Begin by attaching as many concepts under the banner of imperialism that contribute to it and its ‘operational definition’
foundations of empire
Foundations of Empire
  • Modern Imperialism is frequently informal, encompassing domination of trade, investment to exploit and influence affairs of subject societies without formally controlling their political system
  • Modern colonialism refers to political, social, economic and cultural structures enabling imperial powers to dominate completely their once sovereign land (migration?)
motives of imperialism
Motives of Imperialism
  • Economic: need for reliable sources of raw materials including rubber, tin, copper
  • Political: geopolitics create need for strategic control of important sites on sea lanes, harbors
  • Cultural motive: “civilizing mission” in form of political order, social and cultural enlightenment through Christianity, Western ideologies
could be direct or indirect
Could be direct or indirect
  • Some regions would be controlled directly, like India after the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857.
  • Most would be favored by Indirect Control, the ‘Lugard’ technique (only works well in areas of successful indigenous rule
civilizing mission
Civilizing Mission
  • There are significant parallels to the Columbian Model of ‘God, Glory, and Gold’ from several hundred years earlier
  • Europeans came, saw, conquered. . . .and justified it by saying they were delivering ‘civilization’ to the masses.
  • American Indians, Africans, etc. . .
  • Peoples seen as child-like and ignorant of the ‘right way’ to live. . . . (Western Civ)
rudyard kipling
Rudyard Kipling
  • Read the following two stanzas and pull out as much as you can from it to better understand imperialism in your notes.
slide8
Take up the White Man's burden--Send forth the best ye breed--Go bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives' need;To wait in heavy harness,On fluttered folk and wild--Your new-caught, sullen peoples,Half-devil and half-child.Take up the White Man's burden--In patience to abide,To veil the threat of terrorAnd check the show of pride;By open speech and simple,An hundred times made plainTo seek another's profit,And work another's gain.
slide9
Take up the White Man's burden--The savage wars of peace--Fill full the mouth of FamineAnd bid the sickness cease;And when your goal is nearestThe end for others sought,Watch sloth and heathen FollyBring all your hopes to nought.Take up the White Man's burden--No tawdry rule of kings,But toil of serf and sweeper--The tale of common things.The ports ye shall not enter,The roads ye shall not tread,Go mark them with your living,And mark them with your dead.
slide10
Take up the White Man's burden--And reap his old reward:The blame of those ye better,The hate of those ye guard--The cry of hosts ye humour(Ah, slowly!) toward the light:--"Why brought he us from bondage,Our loved Egyptian night?"Take up the White Man's burden--Ye dare not stoop to less--Nor call too loud on FreedomTo cloke your weariness;By all ye cry or whisper,By all ye leave or do,The silent, sullen peoplesShall weigh your gods and you.
slide11
Take up the White Man's burden--Have done with childish days--The lightly proferred laurel,The easy, ungrudged praise.Comes now, to search your manhoodThrough all the thankless yearsCold, edged with dear-bought wisdom,The judgment of your peers!
what were the tools of empire
What were the Tools of Empire?
  • Transportation technologies: steamships, railroads allow unlimited and faster travel at any time of year.
  • Military technologies: increasingly powerful weapons including machine guns by the1880s.
    • The battle of Omdurman in 1898
  • Communications technologies: steamships and telegraphs, cable allow instantaneous communication.
africa direct imperialism
Africa & Direct Imperialism

The Scramble for Africa, 1875-1900

British Occupation of Egypt and the Berlin Conference, 1884-1885.

The Belgian Congo, 1870’s-1908

King Leopold II

10 mil. Africans died as a result of the imperial rule

brutality, abuses, and high taxes.

South Africa: Conflict within settler communities of Dutch, Afrikaners, Boers

British Rule forced them to the interior, Voortrekker

Diamonds!

Boer War!

14

berlin conference
Berlin Conference

1884-1885

14 European States, United States

Devised the ground rules for the peaceful colonization of Africa

Not a single African present!

Every part of African colonized except Liberia and Ethiopia

16

the british empire in india
The British Empire in India
  • Company Rule, Why Here?
    • British East India Company (1700’s-1857)
      • Death of Aurangzeb in 1707.
      • Implementation of Sepoys and gradual expansion of merchant control
    • The Sepoy Rebellion (The great Rebellion of 1857)
    • Abolition of the East India Company, 1858
  • Direct Rule (1858-1947)
    • Viceroyalty
british imperialism and transformation of india
British Imperialism and transformation of India
  • Deforestation
    • Cleared forests
  • Expansion of cash crop cultivation
    • Tea, coffee, opium, and jute
  • Land taxes used to finance bureaucracy
  • Infrastructural developments
    • Irrigation systems
    • Railroad and telegraph networks
    • Canals and harbors
  • Non-interference policy and cultural practices as a general rule.
    • However restrictions were placed upon the Sati
so what is colonialism and how is it different
So what is Colonialism and how is it different?
  • Climate determines. . . .
  • Could mean droves of Europeans relocate to settle an area, like ___________.
  • Or Europeans ‘Make a place like home’ but not settle en mass, like India, parts of Africa
british success sparked competition for spheres of influence
British Success Sparked Competition for Spheres of influence
  • South Asia to Southeast Asia
  • Spain – Philippines
  • Dutch – Indonesia
  • Britain – Burma, Malaysia
  • France – Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos)
  • Except? Siam, why?
japan the colonial oddity
Japan, the colonial oddity
  • Forced to open its ports to the world in 1850
  • Rapid Industrialization under the Meiji Era and anger at the unfair treaties forced upon them by the West
  • As early as 1879, they began their own expansionistic conquests
  • By 1904, they have defeated both China and Russia in successive wars and are now an Imperial Power in the Eastern Hemisphere
legacies of imperialism
Legacies of Imperialism
  • Introduction of new crops throughout the world
    • Introduction of tea bushes from China to Ceylon and India
    • Rubber Trees transplanted all over the world
    • Cotton
legacies of imperialism1
Legacies of Imperialism
  • Labor migrations
    • European migrations
    • Non-European migrations
  • Colonial conflicts
  • Racism, Sci and Pop
legacy of imperialism
Legacy of Imperialism
  • Nationalism and Anti-Colonial movements
  • Begins in India, no wonder
  • Ram Mohan Roy
  • Would be seen in every region that experiences colonialism/imperialism to varying degrees
slide31
WWI

It was seen as inevitable that the ‘Great Powers’ of the world would fight over global domination. Many saw it as unavoidable as countries sought alliances in order to defend themselves. Unfortunately, these alliances are a bit like building a house out of firewood.