Principles of Assessment EDUC 4454 P/J Methods
The primary purpose of assessment and evaluation is to improve student learning.
We do this by: • Identifying student strengths & learning needs • Providing data for instructional decisions • Monitoring student progress & performance • Monitoring program effectiveness; and • Connecting all areas later for evaluation & reporting purposes
If assessment does not result in improved teaching, then its value in school diminishes greatly. Assessment allows us to see the results of our teaching and allows us to make valid judgements about students. I. Fountas &G.S. Pinnell Guided Reading; Good First Teaching for All p. 73 • The connection between assessment & instruction is critical • Developing a plan is necessary to ensure data is timely, reliable & helpful in informing practice • Our goal as we assess students is to: - find out what they can do - support their next steps - move them forward to more complex understanding
Four Phases of Assessment • Assessment is a cyclical process that begins with the end in mind! • At the centre of the process is the student as a reminder that the purpose of planning is improved student learning.
Phase 1: Unpacking the Curriculum Teacher Child What will I be learning? What are my students expected to learn and be able to do? This foundational knowledge gives us the background to determine what type of assessment information we will need to gather in order to monitor student learning & adapt instruction.
Phase 2:Gathering the Evidence Teacher Child How will I know what I am learning? How will I know my students are learning? This phase focuses on the purposeful and planned collection of evidence of student learning using a range of assessment tools and strategies. See p. 12.7 of a Guide to Effective Instruction in Reading: K-3, 2003 for a graphic of various tools and strategies.
Phase 3:Teaching for Learning Teacher Student How will I learn and what help will I need? How will I help my students learn and respond if they are not learning? Phase focuses on how we are using the data to support student learning. Data is analyzed to make decisions regarding instructional resources to use, instructional groupings and both long and short term learning goals fro students. This drives your programming.
Phase 4:On-going Assessment, Evaluation & Reporting Teacher Child How will I know how well I did? How will I determine the level of my student's learning and report on it? Phase reminds us that this is an on-going process that must be planned for in order to continually monitor student learning & adjust instruction. We must use professional judgement to evaluate achievement in relationship to particular internal/external criteria. The final piece in this phase is reporting.
Reporting • Reporting is the opportunity for us to document a student’s achievement to that point in time, in relationship to the specific learning covered during the reporting period. • The report card allows the teacher to describe the highest, most consistent, most recent demonstrations of student learning.
Principles of Assessment Given all the abovehe principles of assessment have been established to ensure that assessment and evaluation are valid and reliable and lead to an improvement in student learning.
Principle #1 Assessment and evaluation strategies should address both what students learn and how well they learn.
Content Standards Curriculum Expectations What students learn Subject and grade specific Promote consistency across the province Performance Standards Achievement Charts How well students learn High standards for all students Promote consistency across the province
Principle # 2 Assessment and evaluation strategies should be appropriate for the learning activities used, the purpose of instruction and the needs and experiences of students.
Classroom Assessments • Closely tied to expectations • Closely tied to learning activities • Consider students’ prior learning • Consider students’ needs • Reflect students’ backgrounds
Principle #3 Assessment and evaluation strategies should be communicated clearly to students and parents at the beginning and throughout the year.
Report Cards Informal reports Individual Education Plan (IEP) Teacher/student conferences Teacher/parent conferences Teacher/parent/student conferences Communication
Principle #4 Assessment and evaluation strategies should be fair to all students.
Achieving Fairness • Provide choice within the assessment (e.g., topic to research) • Provide choice in the mode of response (e.g., oral report instead of a written report) • Negotiate time lines • Make purposes and expectations clear
Principle #5 Assessment and evaluation strategies should be varied in nature, administered over a period of time and designed to provide opportunities for students to demonstrate the full range of their learning.
Projects Quizzes Exams Interviews Written Reports Oral Reports Observations Oral Questioning Portfolios Multi-media Presentations Performance Tasks Assignments Numerous and Varied Opportunities to Demonstrate Achievement
Quiz Test Question Essay Class Discussion Conference Poem Dramatic Presentation Science Experiment Research Paper Arts Performance See the Ontario Curriculum Unit Planner for more strategies. Assessment Strategies
Assessment Tools • Check Lists • Marking Schemes • Rubrics • Portfolios
Assessment Methods • Paper and Pencil • Performance Tasks • Personal Communication
Principle #6 Assessment and evaluation strategies must be based both on the categories of knowledge and skills and on the achievement level descriptions for each discipline.
Categories of Knowledge and Skills • Knowledge/Understanding • Thinking/Inquiry/Problem Solving • Communication • Application
broad in scope and general in nature describe performance for four levels of achievement for all the categories of knowledge and skills provide a common reference for teachers as they design assessments and evaluate students’ work used to provide criteria and feedback to students and parents Achievement Charts: Performance Standards
Achievement Levels Level Definition Letter Grade Percentage Mark 4 Student has demonstrated A+ 90-100 the required knowledge & A 85-89 skills. Achievement exceeds A- 80-84 Provincial standard. 3 Student has demonstrated B+ 77-79 required knowledge & skills B 73-76 Achievement meets Provincial B- 70-72 Standard.
Achievement Levels Level Definition Letter Grade Percentage Mark 2 Student has demonstrated C+ 67-69 some of the required C 63-66 Knowledge & skills. C- 60-62 Achievement approaches Provincial standard. 1 Student has demonstrated B+ 77-79 required knowledge & skills B 73-76 in limited ways. Achievement B- 70-72 falls much below Provincial Standard. R Student has not demonstrated R Below 50 required knowledge & skills. Extensive remediation is required.
Level 3: Provincial Standard Teachers and parents can be confident that students who are achieving at Level 3 are well prepared for work in the next grade.
Exemplars: Writing Reading Mathematics Social Studies Science and Technology Visual Arts Health and Physical Education Resources
Exemplars • Based on performance task • Linked to the curriculum expectations • Standard process for administering the task • Rubric (based on Achievement Chart) • Examples of student work for four levels • Teachers’ notes and comments
Performance Tasks • Present engaging “real world”, meaningful, substantive issues or problems. • Are directly related to curriculum expectations. • Focus on what students can do and how they apply and extend their knowledge. • Emphasize the processesstudents use, rather than only focus on the “right” answer. • Present students with complex, loosely structured problems that allow for a wide range of products.
Principle #7 Assessment and evaluation strategies should include the use of samples of students’ work that provide evidence of their achievement.
Samples of Student Work • show progress through the year • can be compared to ministry exemplars for evaluation • can be used when conferencing with students • can be used when communicating with parents • can be placed in a portfolio
Principle #8 Assessment and evaluation strategies should ensure that each student is given clear directions for improvement.
Directions for Improvement • Achievement Charts • Four categories of knowledge and skills • Exemplars and Task Specific Rubrics • Four categories of knowledge and skills • Report Cards • Strengths, weaknesses, next steps
Principle #9 Assessment and evaluation strategies must promote students’ ability to assess their own learning and to set specific goals.
Self-Assessment and Goal Setting • Report Card – Response Form • Daily activities and journals • Agendas • Portfolios • Teacher-parent-student conferences • Student-led conferences
Principle #10 Assessment and evaluation strategies should accommodate the needs of exceptional students, consistent with the strategies outlined in their Individual Education Plans (IEP).
Principle #11 Assessment and evaluation strategies should accommodate the needs of students who are learning the language of instruction.
Assessment Accommodations • Additional time • Oral test instead of written test • Simplify tasks and/or materials • Specialized equipment • Assistance of professional or paraprofessional staff