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PRE-HISTORY. PALEOLITHIC AND NEOLITHIC SOCIETIES TO THE RISE OF CITIES. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN SOCIETY. The Hominids Australopithecus Appeared in east Africa about 4 million to 1 million years ago The term means "the southern ape" but it belongs to hominids

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  2. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN SOCIETY • The Hominids • Australopithecus • Appeared in east Africa about 4 million to 1 million years ago • The term means "the southern ape" but it belongs to hominids • Walked upright on two legs, well-developed hands • Fashioned stone tools, probably knew how to use fire later • Homo erectus • Flourished 1.5 million to 200,000 years ago, east Africa • The term means "upright walking human" • Large brain allowed for different functions • Sophisticated tools, definitely knew how to control fire • Developed language skills • Language probably a hunting skill • Migrations of Homo erectus • 500,000 to 200,000 years ago • First migrated to north Africa • Later migrated to Asia and Europe


  4. PALEOLITHIC AGE • Homo sapiens • The term means "consciously thinking human" • Evolved as early as 250,000 years ago • Brain with large frontal regions for conscious and reflective thought • The advantages of intelligence over other species • Migrations of Homo sapiens • Beginning more than 100,000 years ago, spread throughout Eurasia • Several ice ages between 120 and 25 thousand years ago • Land bridges enabled them to populate islands of Indonesia, New Guinea • Arrived in Australia at least 60,000 or perhaps as long as 120,000 years ago • Between 40,000 and 25,000 years ago, migrated to North America • The natural environment • Homo sapiens used knives, spears, bows, and arrows • Brought tremendous pressure on other species


  6. PALEOLITHIC CULTURE • Neanderthal peoples • Named after the site of the Neander valley in S.W. Germany • Flourished in Europe and S.W. Asia between 100 and 35 thousand years ago • Careful, deliberate burials-evidence of a capacity for emotion and feelings • Cro-Magnon peoples • The first human beings of fully modern type, appeared 40,000 years ago • Classified as Homo sapiens sapiens • A noticeable interest in fashion and artistic production • Social Organization • Small family units, clans of generally no more than 15-20 people • Organized hunting bands, led by elders with greatest knowledge of hunting, gathering • Women could be leaders • Venus figurines • Besides jewelry and furniture, there were also Venus figurines and paintings • The figurines reflect a deep interest in fertility • Cave paintings • Best known are Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain • Subjects: mostly animals; Purposes: aesthetic, "sympathetic magic

  7. ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE • Neolithic era • "New stone age" - refined tools and agriculture • Time period: from about 12,000 to 6,000 years ago • Most likely, Paleolithic women began systematic cultivation of plants • Paleolithic men began to domesticate animals • "Agricultural transition" is better than "agricultural revolution" • Early agriculture • The earliest evidence found between 10,000 to 8000 B.C.E. • Slash-and-burn cultivation involved frequent movement of farmers • About 5000 B.C.E., agriculture well-established in Asia and Americas • The spread of agriculture • Advantages of cultivation over hunting and gathering • Developed indigenously in several different cultural hearths • Agriculture provided a surplus

  8. EARLY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY • Population explosion caused by surplus • Emergence of villages and towns • Jericho, earliest known Neolithic village (north of the Dead Sea) • Agricultural society, supplemented by hunting and limited trade • Mud huts and defensive walls • Specialization of labor • Neolithic site of Çatal Hüyük (south-central Anatolia) • Developed into a bustling town with more than 8,000 inhabitants • Craft industries - pottery, metallurgy, and textile production • Ruling class, priestly, craftsmen, and merchants were common • Social distinctions • Agriculture brought about private land ownership • Social classes emerged, as seen in Çatal Hüyük site • Beliefs • Neolithic peoples celebrated deities associated with life cycle • Increasing deification, anthropomorphism of nature, seasons • Increasing masculinization of deities


  10. ORIGINS OF URBAN LIFE • Emergence of cities • Tended to emerge in hostile environments • Harsh environments required stronger organization • Cities were larger and more complex • Cities influenced life of large regions • Earliest cities in Southern Mesopotamia • Region called Sumer • Ur, Erech, Uruk • Other hearths of urban civilization • Indus River Valley • Nile River Valley • River Valley of the Huang He • Coastal Jungles of Mexico

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