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    1. Presentation on Environmental Issues September 1, 2003 Japan Electronics & Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA)

    2. ?. Prevention of Global Warming - Kyoto Protocol ?. Approaches by JEITA toward Prevention of Global Warming - Recycling initiatives

    3. Prevention of Global Warming - Kyoto Protocol At first, I will introduce the worldwide measures to prevent global warming issue. A drastic change in the environment will bring various kinds of changes for the earth as a whole. The global warming process is closely linked to other important problems confronting the earth, including atmospheric pollution, the destruction of the ozone layer, the loss of forest, and desertification. So, the prevention of global warming is a critical issue for us. At first, I will introduce the worldwide measures to prevent global warming issue. A drastic change in the environment will bring various kinds of changes for the earth as a whole. The global warming process is closely linked to other important problems confronting the earth, including atmospheric pollution, the destruction of the ozone layer, the loss of forest, and desertification. So, the prevention of global warming is a critical issue for us.

    4. CO2 Emissions in the World This graph shows the CO2 emissions ratio of the world in 1998. The greatest cause of global warming is carbon dioxide, which is discharged when natural resources such as petroleum and coal are burned. Our consumption of natural resources lead to increase in the density of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The amount of carbon dioxide emissions in 1998 was about 1.7 billion tons in the world, but, in 1998, the figure increased to about 22.9 billion tons. Emissions by developing countries began to increase rapidly in 1970s. This graph shows the CO2 emissions ratio of the world in 1998. The greatest cause of global warming is carbon dioxide, which is discharged when natural resources such as petroleum and coal are burned. Our consumption of natural resources lead to increase in the density of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The amount of carbon dioxide emissions in 1998 was about 1.7 billion tons in the world, but, in 1998, the figure increased to about 22.9 billion tons. Emissions by developing countries began to increase rapidly in 1970s.

    5. Kyoto Protocol Targets for Reduction of Greenhouse Gases Iceland +10% Australia +8% Norway +1% New Zealand, Russia, Ukraine Stabilize levels Croatia -5% Japan, Canada, Hungary, Poland -6% USA -7% EU -8% At the 3rd Conference of Parties to conclude the United Nations framework convention on climate change (COP3), which was held in December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted. This Kyoto Protocol set legally binding quantified targets for reducing the emission of greenhouse gases by developed countries, which countries listed in the Annex ?of the Protocol. The target reduction ratio for each country was set for the 5-year period from 2008 to 2012 with 1990 as the base year. The target ratios were set at 6% for Japan, 7% for the United States, 8% for EU, and so on. And as a whole are to reduce emissions by 5.2%. At the 3rd Conference of Parties to conclude the United Nations framework convention on climate change (COP3), which was held in December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted. This Kyoto Protocol set legally binding quantified targets for reducing the emission of greenhouse gases by developed countries, which countries listed in the Annex ?of the Protocol. The target reduction ratio for each country was set for the 5-year period from 2008 to 2012 with 1990 as the base year. The target ratios were set at 6% for Japan, 7% for the United States, 8% for EU, and so on. And as a whole are to reduce emissions by 5.2%.

    6. Kyoto Protocol Conditions for Taking Effect ? When 55 of the signatories of the treaty ratify the Protocol ? When the countries that were accountable for 55% of CO2 discharged by all developed (Annex 1) countries in 1990 ratify it In order to Kyoto Protocol becomes to take effect, it is necessary to meet these conditions; When 55 of the signatories of the treaty ratify the Protocol, and when the countries that were accountable for 55% of the carbon dioxide discharged by all developed countries in 1990 ratify it, the Protocol will take effect 90 days from that date. In order to Kyoto Protocol becomes to take effect, it is necessary to meet these conditions; When 55 of the signatories of the treaty ratify the Protocol, and when the countries that were accountable for 55% of the carbon dioxide discharged by all developed countries in 1990 ratify it, the Protocol will take effect 90 days from that date.

    7. Kyoto Protocol Present Status of Effecting Conditions (a) This graph shows the CO2 emissions ratio of developed(Annex 1) countries in 1990. This ratio is based on the condition ? for taking effect the Protocol. (IPCC is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) This graph shows the CO2 emissions ratio of developed(Annex 1) countries in 1990. This ratio is based on the condition ? for taking effect the Protocol. (IPCC is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)

    8. Kyoto Protocol Present Status of Effecting Conditions (b) This is the present condition for taking effect the Protocol as of July 10, 2003. Regarding the condition ?, number of signatories is 110 countries and EU member states, so necessary condition has already fulfilled. Regarding the condition ?, the amount of the carbon dioxide is discharged in 1990 by all developed (Annex 1) countries that have ratified it is 44.2%, so needs 10.8% more ratified for taking effect. The United States declared to leave the Protocol in 2001, however, Russia and Canada declared to ratify in a short time. So, necessary conditions will fulfill in the near future. This is the present condition for taking effect the Protocol as of July 10, 2003. Regarding the condition ?, number of signatories is 110 countries and EU member states, so necessary condition has already fulfilled. Regarding the condition ?, the amount of the carbon dioxide is discharged in 1990 by all developed (Annex 1) countries that have ratified it is 44.2%, so needs 10.8% more ratified for taking effect. The United States declared to leave the Protocol in 2001, however, Russia and Canada declared to ratify in a short time. So, necessary conditions will fulfill in the near future.

    9. Approaches by JEITA toward Prevention of Global Warming By fostering technological innovation, we need to establish mechanisms that contribute to the balance between the environment and the economy and creative initiative in business circles, in order to link the efforts to prevent global warming to economic revitalization and employment creation. In order to achieve the targets of the Kyoto Protocol (a 6% reduction below 1990 levels), Japanese government enforced the Guideline for Measures to Prevent Global Warming. The guideline includes over 100 individual policies and measures for industrial, residential and commercial and transportation sectors. By fostering technological innovation, we need to establish mechanisms that contribute to the balance between the environment and the economy and creative initiative in business circles, in order to link the efforts to prevent global warming to economic revitalization and employment creation. In order to achieve the targets of the Kyoto Protocol (a 6% reduction below 1990 levels), Japanese government enforced the Guideline for Measures to Prevent Global Warming. The guideline includes over 100 individual policies and measures for industrial, residential and commercial and transportation sectors.

    10. Action Plan for Measures to Prevent Global Warming -by Industrial Sector- This graph shows the trend of the carbon dioxide emissions by industrial sector. Industrial sector under Nippon Keidanren makes the target to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions in 2010 to below the levels of 1990. In 2005, the emissions expect to increase for the maintenance of atomic power plants, however, in 2010, we will be able to control the same level as 1990s. The graph of the right side shows the case which does not promote to improve the energy consumption efficiency. This graph shows the trend of the carbon dioxide emissions by industrial sector. Industrial sector under Nippon Keidanren makes the target to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions in 2010 to below the levels of 1990. In 2005, the emissions expect to increase for the maintenance of atomic power plants, however, in 2010, we will be able to control the same level as 1990s. The graph of the right side shows the case which does not promote to improve the energy consumption efficiency.

    11. Action Plan for Measures to Prevent Global Warming - by Electronics Sector- Next, I will introduce the action plan for measures to prevent global warming by Electronics sector. As you see, CO2 emissions by electronics sector increased remarkably. CO2 emissions in 2000 were a about a 34% increase compared to 1990, because some products such as electronic devices which need to consume much energy on the producing process. Unfortunately, CO2 emissions by electronics sector are increasing more and more with IT advancement. Under this situation, the efforts by our industries to reduce CO2 emissions added to the effect of a lower production associated with stagnation economy, so we are achieving steady improvement CO2 emissions per unit output. We defined our goal in 2010 a 25% decrease compared to 1990, however CO2 emissions in 2000 became worse than 1990s, because we tried to fall down our productions prices. Next, I will introduce the action plan for measures to prevent global warming by Electronics sector. As you see, CO2 emissions by electronics sector increased remarkably. CO2 emissions in 2000 were a about a 34% increase compared to 1990, because some products such as electronic devices which need to consume much energy on the producing process. Unfortunately, CO2 emissions by electronics sector are increasing more and more with IT advancement. Under this situation, the efforts by our industries to reduce CO2 emissions added to the effect of a lower production associated with stagnation economy, so we are achieving steady improvement CO2 emissions per unit output. We defined our goal in 2010 a 25% decrease compared to 1990, however CO2 emissions in 2000 became worse than 1990s, because we tried to fall down our productions prices.

    12. Recycling Next, I will introduce the recycling initiative of JEITA. Economic and social activities based on mass production and mass consumption brought great benefits to us, however they also had an adverse affect as a mass disposal society. To deal with such a situation, the idea of a recycling-based society is proposed by Japanese government. Next, I will introduce the recycling initiative of JEITA. Economic and social activities based on mass production and mass consumption brought great benefits to us, however they also had an adverse affect as a mass disposal society. To deal with such a situation, the idea of a recycling-based society is proposed by Japanese government.

    13. Legislative System and Policies to Establish Recycling-Oriented Society For realization of recycling-based society, the Basic Law for Establishing a Recycling-based Society was enacted in June 2000. In concern with the Basic Law for Recycling, the Waste Management Law and Law for Promotion of Effective Utilization of Resources were amended for establishment of a general scheme. Moreover, recycling regulations in accordance with the characteristics of individual products and Green Purchasing Law in order to promote for procurement of recycles products by the national government on its own initiative were enacted. For realization of recycling-based society, the Basic Law for Establishing a Recycling-based Society was enacted in June 2000. In concern with the Basic Law for Recycling, the Waste Management Law and Law for Promotion of Effective Utilization of Resources were amended for establishment of a general scheme. Moreover, recycling regulations in accordance with the characteristics of individual products and Green Purchasing Law in order to promote for procurement of recycles products by the national government on its own initiative were enacted.

    14. Law for Promotion of Effective Utilization of Resources <enforcement : April 2001> The Law for Promotion of Effective Utilization of Resources was enacted in May 2000 and enforced April 2001. This Law is designated to create a recycling-oriented economy by (1) requiring further recycling efforts such as obliging businesses to collect and recycle waste products, (2) requiring further reduction of waste through the promotion of resource saving production and long-life products, (3) promoting the reuse of parts, etc,. recovered from waste products, and (4) devising measures to reduce industrial waste through the reduction of by-products and the enhancement of recycling systems. The personal computers and related equipment are designated as a resource-saving product and a product to be recycled by this Law. The Law for Promotion of Effective Utilization of Resources was enacted in May 2000 and enforced April 2001. This Law is designated to create a recycling-oriented economy by (1) requiring further recycling efforts such as obliging businesses to collect and recycle waste products, (2) requiring further reduction of waste through the promotion of resource saving production and long-life products, (3) promoting the reuse of parts, etc,. recovered from waste products, and (4) devising measures to reduce industrial waste through the reduction of by-products and the enhancement of recycling systems. The personal computers and related equipment are designated as a resource-saving product and a product to be recycled by this Law.

    15. PC Recycling To promote collection and recycling of disused PC products, office PC collection and recycling systems were established on April 1st 2001, and home PC collection and recycling systems shall be established in October 1st 2003. Also disused related equipment shall be collected. To promote collection and recycling of disused PC products, office PC collection and recycling systems were established on April 1st 2001, and home PC collection and recycling systems shall be established in October 1st 2003. Also disused related equipment shall be collected.

    16. Office PC Collection /Recycling System This chart shows office PC collection and Recycling system. In April, 2001, PC manufacturers were obliged to collect and recycle used office PCs when users such as companies asked to discard them. In this system, users ask manufacturers to discard their PC, and next, manufacturers order the collection and recycling to transporters or disposal dealers, and used PCs are separated and collected into pieces at recycling plants. Moreover, recycling plants take out recyclable resources, sell them to re-users as resources, and reuse after. Final wastes manipulate at disposal sites. This chart shows office PC collection and Recycling system. In April, 2001, PC manufacturers were obliged to collect and recycle used office PCs when users such as companies asked to discard them. In this system, users ask manufacturers to discard their PC, and next, manufacturers order the collection and recycling to transporters or disposal dealers, and used PCs are separated and collected into pieces at recycling plants. Moreover, recycling plants take out recyclable resources, sell them to re-users as resources, and reuse after. Final wastes manipulate at disposal sites.

    17. Home PC Collection /Recycling System This chart shows home PC collection and recycling system. In October 2003, PC manufacturers will be obliged to collect and recycle home PCs. In this system, consumers will be obliged to cooperate in appropriately transferring used PCs to designated area. The measure of transferring is some patterns such as hand over or home delivery service for the convenience of consumers. The feature of home PC collection and recycling is cost recovery system. After October 1st 2003 as starting date of this system, manufacturers are obliged to charge collection and recycling fees on prices of PCs. So consumers do not need to pay the collection and recycling fees on their disposal. The home PCs for free collection and recycling will be labeled PC recycling mark and sold. This chart shows home PC collection and recycling system. In October 2003, PC manufacturers will be obliged to collect and recycle home PCs. In this system, consumers will be obliged to cooperate in appropriately transferring used PCs to designated area. The measure of transferring is some patterns such as hand over or home delivery service for the convenience of consumers. The feature of home PC collection and recycling is cost recovery system. After October 1st 2003 as starting date of this system, manufacturers are obliged to charge collection and recycling fees on prices of PCs. So consumers do not need to pay the collection and recycling fees on their disposal. The home PCs for free collection and recycling will be labeled PC recycling mark and sold.

    18. Electric Home Appliances Collection/ Recycling System This chart shows electric home appliances collection and recycling system. Electric Home Appliances Recycling Law enforced in April, 2001 in order to promote the appropriate collection and recycling for TVs, air conditioners, refrigerators and washing machines. Consumers are obliged to pay necessary fees for transfer and recycling of those appliances on disposal. Retailers are obliged to take back used appliances and transfer them to relevant manufacturers when requested by consumers. Moreover retailers are obliged to publish and keep recycling tickets. Manufacturers are obliged to take back used appliances and hand-over to designated collection centers which are appropriately arranged by manufacturers. In fiscal 2001, 855 million products and until January fiscal 2002, 884 million products are collected at designated areas nationwide in Japan. Like this, the system carries on smoothly. This chart shows electric home appliances collection and recycling system. Electric Home Appliances Recycling Law enforced in April, 2001 in order to promote the appropriate collection and recycling for TVs, air conditioners, refrigerators and washing machines. Consumers are obliged to pay necessary fees for transfer and recycling of those appliances on disposal. Retailers are obliged to take back used appliances and transfer them to relevant manufacturers when requested by consumers. Moreover retailers are obliged to publish and keep recycling tickets. Manufacturers are obliged to take back used appliances and hand-over to designated collection centers which are appropriately arranged by manufacturers. In fiscal 2001, 855 million products and until January fiscal 2002, 884 million products are collected at designated areas nationwide in Japan. Like this, the system carries on smoothly.