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Growth Management or Social Engineering? The Albuquerque Experiment. Arthur C. Nelson, Ph.D., FAICP Professor & Director Urban Affairs & Planning Virginia Tech – Alexandria Center National Impact Fee Roundtable – Denver 2005. What is “Social Engineering”. The use of policy to

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growth management or social engineering the albuquerque experiment

Growth Management or Social Engineering?The Albuquerque Experiment

Arthur C. Nelson, Ph.D., FAICP

Professor & Director

Urban Affairs & Planning

Virginia Tech – Alexandria Center

National Impact Fee Roundtable – Denver 2005

what is social engineering
What is “Social Engineering”
  • The use of policy to
    • Change behavior
    • Change social outcomes
  • “Engineering” tools 
    • Taxes and fees (economists’ preference)
    • Regulations (politicians’)
    • Combined (planners’ preference)
we are already socially engineered federal state
We are Already Socially Engineered Federal & State
  • Public education, standards
  • Public health (inoculations)
  • Public safety (driving rules, building codes)
  • Retirement planning (IRAs)
  • Home Ownership (tax deductions)
  • Investment (capital gains preferences)
we are already socially engineered local
We Are Already Socially Engineered Local
  • Euclidian zoning (segregating land uses)
  • Exclusionary zoning (keep low-income out)
    • Large-lot & large-house zoning
  • Inefficient pricing
    • Average cost utilities, subsidized roads, etc.

= Urban Sprawl (development patterns that create more costs than benefits)

effects of social engineering in land use planning
Effects of Social Engineeringin Land-Use Planning
  • Over-consumption of land
  • Rising costs per unit of new development
  • Inefficient land-use interactions causing more traffic
  • Social segregation, skewed benefits
  • Higher quality of life in some areas, lower QoL in others  Less than optimal aggregate QoL
purposes of growth management
Purposes of Growth Management
  • Protect public goods
  • Minimize taxpayer exposure
  • Maximize positive land-use interactions and minimize negative ones
  • Distribute growth benefits & burdens equitably
  • Elevate the current quality of life
planning and re engineering
Planning and “Re-Engineering”
  • Provide public goods (buy/regulate)
  • Reconfigure land-use planning to reduce facility costs (regulation), reduce taxpayer exposure (efficient pricing)
  • Reconfigure land-use to maximize positive land-use interactions (regulation)
  • Workforce housing; provision of facilities equitably (subsidies, regulation)
  • Outcome should be aggregate QoL improvement
the albuquerque experiment
The Albuquerque Experiment
  • Planned Growth Strategies (PGS)
  • Based on Growth Management Goals
  • Encourage development in areas with

existing services  “Fully-Served”

tier = $0 marginal cost

  • “Partially-Served” tier  Charge “full” marginal cost
  • “Unserved” tier  Development agreements
the role of impact fees
The Role of Impact Fees
  • New Mexico Allows

Public Safety

Water, wastewater, stormwater

Parks and recreation, open space, trails

Roads

  • New Mexico Does Not Allow

Schools, libraries, community centers

  • PGS-based Impact Fees For

All eligible fees except water & wastewater

pgs impact fee team
PGS-Impact Fee Team
  • Chris Nelson, Virginia Tech, team leader
  • Steve Tindale, Tindale Oliver Associates

Roads

  • James C. Nicholas, University of Florida

Public Safety, Parks, O.S., Trails

  • Kees Korsmit, Integrated Utilities Group

Stormwater drainage

  • Julian C. Juergensmeyer, Georgia State U.

Law

pgs based impact fees
PGS-Based Impact Fees
  • Public Safety “east” & “west” service

areas: $207 to $276 per 1k sf du

  • Trails & Open Space: $390 per 1k sf du
  • Parks and Recreation  7 service areas: $0 to $1,630 per 1k sf du
  • Drainage  5 services areas: $0 to $0.32 per impervious square foot
  • Roads  7 service areas: $0 to $2,918 per home in largest-home tier

Steve Tindale to Review

even more engineering
Even More “Engineering”
  • $0 for Affordable Housing (HUD)
  • $0 in Metropolitan Redevelopment Areas
  • 30% to 70% reduction for job-based development west of Rio Grande (jobs-housing balance)
  • New study to derive across-the-board reductions based on land-use integration
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