proper words in proper places make the true definition of a style
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‘Proper words in proper places, make the true definition of a style’ . Jonathan Swift, Letter to a young clergyman.

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proper words in proper places make the true definition of a style
‘Proper words in proper places, make the true definition of a style’

Jonathan Swift, Letter to a young clergyman

slide2
End-focus‘is based on the general fact that different parts of utterances have different communicative values … and that normally new or important information is reserved for the end … e.g. Good food costs less at Sainsbury’s’Katie Wales, Dictionary of Stylistics, p. 144
ours was the marsh country
Ours was the marsh country

??The marsh country was ours

slide4
End-weight:‘…complex or “heavy” constituents will tend to follow simpler or lighter ones.’Katie Wales, Dictionary of Stylistics, p. 145
ours was the marsh country down by the river within as the river wound twenty miles of the sea
Ours was the marsh country, down by the river, within, as the river wound, twenty miles of the sea.

??The marsh country, down by the river, within, as the river wound, twenty miles of the sea, was ours.

the small bundle of shivers growing afraid of it all and beginning to cry was pip
The small bundle of shivers growing afraid of it all and beginning to cry, was Pip.

??Pip was the small bundle of shivers growing afraid of its all and beginning to cry.

slide7
… that this bleak place overgrown with nettles was the churchyard;and that Philip Pirrip, late of this parish, and also Georgiana wife of the above,weredead and buried;and that Alexander, Bartholomew, Abraham, Tobias, and Roger, infant children of the aforesaid, were dead and buried;and that the dark flat wilderness beyond the churchyard, intersected with dykes and mounds and gates, with scattered cattle feeding on it, was the marshes;
slide8
and that the low leaden line beyond

was the river;

and that the distant savage lair from which the wind was rushing

was the sea

and that the small bundle of shivers growing afraid of it all and beginning to cry,

was Pip.

the sea the marshes
theseathemarshes

Ours was themarsh country, down by theriver

thedark flat wilderness

the distant savage lair...

thesmall bundle of shivers...

NP1 was NP2

viewpoints
Viewpoints
  • The viewpoint of the author (Dickens) addressing the reader
  • The viewpoint of the adult Pip
  • The viewpoint of the young Pip
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