Morphology Complex Words
Simplex words and complex words to walk, to dance, to laugh, to kiss to purify, to enlarge, to industrialize, to head-hunt house, corner, zebra collection, builder, sea horse green, old, sick regional, washable, honey-sweet
Morphemes A morpheme is the smallest part of a word that adds its own distinct bit of meaning to the word. kill-er, work-er, print-er wash-able, laugh-able re-paint-ing
Cranberry morphemes blueberry blackberry gooseberry (goose?) cranberry (cran???)
Free morphemes and bound morphemes Free morphemes can stand on their own. Bound morphemes, or affixes, cannot: Q: Is that green? A: *No, at best it’s –ish. Q: Is she any good at football? A: *Yes, she’s a great –er. Q: Does he play the piano often? A: *Yes, he –s it all the time.
Suffixes and prefixes Suffixes green-ish build-er wash-able solid-ify industry-al-ize Prefixes en-large re-en-act de-throne ex-minister
Circumfixes and infixes Circumfixes: leef ge-leef-d huur ge-huur-d (Dutch) play played live lived Infixes: base: labas verb: l-um-abas ‘come out’ (Tagalog) base: pasok verb: p-um-asok ‘enter’ base: bili verb: b-um-ili ‘buy’
Compounding Combining two free morphemes: sea + horse sea horse head + strong headstrong hand + made handmade
Productivity Some types of compounding are more productive than others. N-N compounding is completely productive in English: word + kitchen word kitchen (e.g. a kitchen for morphologists) tree + laptop tree laptop (e.g. a laptop with a picture of a tree) gorilla + window gorilla window (e.g. a window through which you can see a gorilla) window + gorilla window gorilla (e.g. a gorilla that always sits behind a window)
Derivation Making a completely new word with an affix: buildverb build-ernoun largeadjective en-largeverb industrynoun industry-aladjective industry-aladjective industry-al-izeverb
Inflection Providing grammatical information about a word with an affix: workverb-s (expresses that the verb has a third person singular subject) workverb-ed (expresses that the event expressed by the verb took place in the past) housenoun-s (expresses that we are dealing with more than one house)
Inflectional morphology can be obligatory in some syntactic contexts. *Sylvia usually walk to work. Sylvia usually walks to work.
Conversion ‘Invisible’ morphology to build – a build-er to dance – a danc-er to run – a run-er to kill – a kill-er to cook – a cook
Conversion between different categories: to runVERB – a runNOUN yellowADJECTIVE – to yellowVERB downPREPOSITION – to downVERB greenADJECTIVE – a greenNOUN
Null affixes in inflection: I/You usually go- to the market on Saturdays.
Tree structures Representing the structure of a complex word in the form of a tree diagram N N plural N N s school V N teach er
Structural ambiguity This ex-president-office-manager works for Bill Clinton. This ex-president-office-manager is now a street artist.
N N N N ex N N N manager N N ex N office N N manager president president office