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# Morphology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Morphology. A review. What is a morpheme? What is the difference between free and bound morphemes? What is a root morpheme? What is the difference between inflectional and derivational morphemes?. What are the building blocks in the formation of complex words?. Morphemes

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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Morphology' - daniel-harrell

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### Morphology

A review

• What is a morpheme?

• What is the difference between free and bound morphemes?

• What is a root morpheme?

• What is the difference between inflectional and derivational morphemes?

• Morphemes

• The most elemental unit of a word

• Morphology

• Study of the internal structure; rules of word formation

Affixes words?

• Prefixes

• Prefixes are added to the beginning

• Suffixes

• Suffixes are added to the end

• Form a word with 2 suffixes

• Form a word with 1 Prefix and 2 Suffixes

Mini exercise words?

For each of the words below, determine the number of morphemes it has.

Sister sister’s sisters happy blister

unhappy the teacher carefully

• Free morphemes can be used alone

• Bound morphemes must be attached to other morphemes

• Free morpheme in a complex word:

Deactivation

de+act+iv+at+ion

• Act: 1 a: the doing of a thing (Merriam Webster Dictionary)

• Quick exercise

For each morpheme below, determine whether it’s free or bound.

Pre pro ive y worth with

un ion re duct ed able

• Lexical morpheme

• Have a ‘real world’ meaning

• Also called content morpheme

• Grammatical morpheme

• Change the form of a word but don’t have ‘real word’ meaning

• Test: find a synonym for the morpheme

• If you can find one, it’s a lexical morpheme

• What is the difference between free &bound morphemes and lexical & grammatical morphemes?

• What’s a root morpheme?

Note: -roots tend to be free and

lexical

-affixes tend to be bound and

grammatical

Exceptions words?

• Quick exercise

• Analyze the word: “production”

• How many morphemes does it have?

• Which morpheme is the stem? Which ones are affixes?

• Is the stem free and lexical?

Conclusion: ‘duct’ is a bound root morpheme

Root morphemes words?

• Quick exercise

• Identify the roots of the following words

kingdom interplanetary dimensional margins paintball children

• What are inflectional affixes?

• Do not create new words when they attach to existing words

• They change the form of that word to indicate grammatical meaning

• Plural –s, -es(noun)

• Possessive –’s, s’ (noun)

• 3rd person singular –s (verb)

• Past tense –ed (verb)

• Past participle –ed, -en

• Present participle -ing

• Pim likes to eat peach-es

• Pim is smart-er than Boss

• Pim is the quick-est of all

• Pim like-s to study

• Pimstudi-ed hard for the quiz

• Pim hasn’t fail-ed a test yet.

• Pim has been study-ingfor 3 hours

Inflectional morpheme

Example

• Derivational Affixes

• Create new (or derive) new words in two ways

• Some derivational morphemes change the content meaning but not grammatical meaning

• Others don’t significantly change the meaning but the grammatical meaning.

• Unlike inflectional affixes, derivational affixes can be both, prefixes or suffixes in English.

Derivational affixes words?

The number of derivational affixes in English is far greater than inflectional affixes

Derivational affixes words?

Quick exercise

• Each of the words below contains two morphemes, a root and a derivational affix. Decide if the derivational affix changes the meaning or class of the root.

retake hopeless

undress tension

disembark cheerful

What is the general trend with regard to the behavior of derivational prefixes vs. suffixes? That is, how does each kind of affix derive new words?

Derivational affixes words?

Quick exercise

• Each of the words below contains two morphemes, a root and a derivational affix. Decide if the derivational affix changes the meaning or class of the root.

rewrite hopeless

unclear creation

What is the general trend with regard to the behavior of derivational prefixes vs. suffixes? That is, how does each kind of affix derive new words?

Morphemes

bound

free

lexical

-bound roots

grammatical

lexical

inflectional

-eight suffixes

derivational

prefixes

ex:-un

suffixes

ex: -ness

• Affixing

• Affixing and derivation create new words in English

• X number of affixes +Y number of words (stems)

• Example: ‘un-’

• Functional shift

• Words changing word class

• Example: impact (noun and verb)

Quick exercise:

Transition reference proposition help

hope

• Coined words

• Speakers continually create new words.

Consider the word ‘dissing’ in the sentence:

Are you dissing me?

1. What does dissing mean?

2. What part of speech does it belong to? (Defend your answer on a morphological basis)

• Acronyms

• Common acronyms that turned into words:

• Where do they derive from?

• Light Amplification (by) Stimulated Emission (of) Radiation

• Borrowing

• Speakers of English aggressively borrow from other languages

• Kindergarten (German)

• Croissant (French)

• Sushi (Japanese)

• Macho (???)

• List 3 words in Thai that are borrowed from English?

• Blending

• Mixing words

• Quick exercise: from what words are the following blends mixed?

Motel Infomercial Edutainment

Netiquette