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Presented by : Nasser Hadjloo EMERGING TRENDS OF INTEL MICROPROCESSORS. Design Considerations. Instruction-level parallelism. Use of Cache hierarchies and their management. Higher clock speeds The Front Side Bus (FSB). Multi-Threading.

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presented by nasser hadjloo http hajloo wordpress com
Presented by :

Nasser Hadjloo


design considerations
Design Considerations
  • Instruction-level parallelism.
  • Use of Cache hierarchiesand their management.
  • Higher clock speeds
  • The Front Side Bus (FSB).
  • Multi-Threading.
  • Power Consumption and heating issues.
  • Etc …
features of netburst architecture
Features of Netburst Architecture
  • Hyperthreading
    • single processor appears to be two logical processor
    • Each logical processor has its own set of register, APIC( Advanced programmable interrupt controller)
    • Increases resource utilization and improve performance.
Rapid Execution Engine:
    • Arithmetic Logic Units (ALUs) run at twice the processor frequency.
    • Basic integer operations executes in 1/2 processor clock tick.
    • Provides higher throughput and reduced latency of execution.
design considerations1
Design Considerations
  • Deeper pipeline(20 stage) with increased branch mispredictions but greater clock speeds and performance.
  • Techniques to hide penalties such as parallel execution, buffering, and speculation.
  • Executes instructions dynamically and out-of order.
  • Performance of a particular code sequence may vary depending on the state the machine was in when that code sequence was entered.
modifications in netburst
Modifications in NetBurst
  • Northwood design combined an increased cache size, a smaller 130 nm fabrication process, and hyper-threading technology
  • Prescott, had a heavily improved branch predictor, the introduction of the SSE3 SIMD instructions , the implementation of Intel 64, Intel's branding for their compatible implementation of the x86-64 64-bit version of the x86 architecture
  • two Prescott cores in a single die, and later Presler, which consists of two Cedar Mill cores on two separate dies.
  • But this had problems……….
design considerations of core
Design Considerations of Core
  • L2 control unit (super-queue)= L2 controller (snoop requests)+ Bus control unit (data and I/O requests to and from the external bus).
  • Prefetching unit is extended to handle separately hardware prefetching by each core.
  •  Shared L2 cache in the Core 2 Duo eliminates on-chip L2-level cache coherence and between L1s of two cores in Core 2 Duo.
  • Although, Core 2 Duo benefits from its on-chip access to the other L1 cache, its performance is limited.
features of core architecture
Features of Core Architecture
  • Multiple cores and hardware virtualization.
  • 14 stage pipeline (smaller than Netburst).
  • Dual core design with linked L1 cache and shared L2 cache.
  • Macrofusion - Two program instructions can be executed as one micro-operation.
  • Intel Intelligent Power Capability- manages run time power consumption of the processors’ execution cores.
  • Includes advanced power gating capacity- ultra fine-grained control systems that turns on individual processor logic subsystems only if when they are needed.
modifications in core
Modifications in Core
  • Allendale core, with 2 MB L2 cache, offers a smaller die size and therefore greater yields.
  • Merom, the first mobile version of the Core 2, gives more emphasis on low power consumption to enhance notebook battery life.
  • Kentsfield released was the first Intel desktop quad core CPU. It comprises of two separate silicon dies (each equivalent to a single Core 2 duo) on one multi chip module
  • Penryn design are the addition of new instructions including SSE4.
  • Problem……..
  • Core i7 New Intel CPU brand name for the business and high-end consumer markets
  • Core i5 processors intended for the main-stream consumer market
  • Core i3 processors intended for the entry-level consumer market
features of nehalem
Features of Nehalem
  • Integrated Memory Controller
  • Quick Path Interconnect
  • Advanced Configuration and Power States
  • Improvements to the pipeline (L2 Branch Predictor, Renamed Returned Stack Buffer, L2 TLB, etc)
  • HyperThreading
  • SSE4.2 instructions
  • Nehalem architecture has a three-level cache
core i7 history
Core i7 History
  • It was started by Bloomfield Architecture in 2008
  • In 2009 Lynnfield and Clarksfield models cames
  • Prior to 2010 all models were quad core
  • In 2010 Arrandale (dual core) models comes
  • In 2010 Gulftown models (extreme) comes which has six hyperthreaded cores
  • All models started by Core-i7 9xx with socket 1366
  • Includes single-processor servers sold as Xeon 35xx
  • Replaced Yorkfield processors
  • Use a different socket than other core-I cpus . Even from all 45 nm cpus
  • On-die memory controller (uncore clock)
  • Use (only one) QPI instead of FSB
  • Support for SSE4.2 & SSE4.1 instruction sets
  • 32 KB L1 instruction and 32 KB L1 data cache per core
  • 256 KB L2 cache (combined instruction and data) per core
  • 8 MB L3 (combined instruction and data) "inclusive", shared by all cores
  • "Turbo Boost" technology allows all active cores to intelligently clock themselves up in steps of 133 MHz over the design clock rate as long as the CPU's predetermined thermal and electrical requirements are still met
  • Used on Core-i5
  • There is no QPI but directly connects to a southbridge using a 2.5 GT/s Direct Media Interface and to other devices using PCI Express links in its Socket 1156
  • Core i7 processors based on Lynnfield have Hyper-Threading, which is disabled in Lynnfield-based Core i5 processors
  • Core i5-7xx, Core i7-8xx or Xeon X34xx
  • Replaced Penryn based Yorkfield processor
  • 45 nm
  • Socket 1156 opposed to the 1366
  • include Direct Media Interface and PCI Express links (dedicated northbridge chip, called the memory controller hub or I/O hub)
  • Is the mobile version of Lynnfield and available under the Core i7 Mobile brand
  • Quad core, 45 nm
  • integrated PCI Express and DMI links
  • Core i7 7xxQM (6MB), Core i7 8xxQM (8MB), Core i7 9xxXM Extreme Edition (8MB)
  • Replaced Penryn-QC
  • Second Mobile cups which contains All Core i7 6xx [UE, LE, E] (4MB)
  • Core i5 5xx [UM, M, E] (3MB), Core i5 4xxM (3MB)
  • Core i3 3xxM, Celeron U3xxx (unreleased), P4 xxx (2MB)
  • Integrated graphics processing unit but only two processor cores
  • 32 nm and Dual Core
  • E series processors are embedded versions with support for PCIe bifurcation and ECC memory
  • Desktop version of Arrandale, 32 nm
  • Only as Core i3 and Core i5 and Dual Core
  • All support Intel's Hyper Threading (HT)
  • Integrated Graphics as well as PCI-Express and DMI links
  • The Clarkdale processor package contains two dies: the actual 32 nm processor with the I/O connections and the 45 nm graphics controller with the memory interface
  • Successor of Wolfdale (45nm)
  • Used in Intel Core, Pentium and Celeron
  • The Core i5 versions generally have all features enabled
  • Only the Core i5-661 model lacking Intel VT-d and TXT like the Core i3, which also does not support Turbo Boost and the AES new instructions
  • Pentium and Celeron versions do not have SMT, only use a reduced amount of third-level cache
gulftown or westmere ep
Gulftownor Westmere-EP
  • The Extreme Edition version of the Core i7 featuring 6 cores, 32nm process (core i9)
  • Gulftown is the first six-core dual-socket processor from Intel
  • Hyper-Threading (for a total of 12 logical threads), 12 MB of cache, Turbo Boost and Intel QuickPath connection bus
  • Uses Westmere micro architecture a 32 nm shrink version of Nehalem
  • 50% higher performance than bloomfield core i7 975
  • Includes Core i7 9xx and Corei7 9xxx [12 MB], Xeon 36xx, Xeon 56xx
  • Socket 1366
design considerations2
Design Considerations
  • Hypertreading is reintroduced to cater to increasing number of thread based applications.
  • Cores are placed on a single die to reduce latencies.
  • QuickPath Interconnect also supplements to achieve this purpose.
  • L1 and L2 for each core and large shared L3 cache for improving performance.
what can we expect
What can we expect……
  • Sandy Bridge microchip will have an architecture optimized for 32-nanometer transistors
  • The Sandy Bridge microarchitecture is also said to focus on the connections of the processor core like vertical interconnects and multilevel dies
  • Increase in FLOPs by using AVX (Advanced Vector Extensions)
  • Haswell will be the successor to Sandy Bridge will be in 22nm.
  • The tick tock model works just fine…!!!
spec 2000benchmark
SPEC 2000benchmark

2004- (3.80 GHz, Intel Pentium 4 processor 570J)

Primary Cache: 12k micro-ops I + 16KBD on chip Secondary Cache: 1MB(I+D) on chip Memory: 1 GB

2005- 3.73 GHz,

Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 processor

Primary Cache: 12k micro-ops I + 16KBD on chip Secondary Cache: 2MB(I+D) on chip

Memory: 1 GB

2006- Intel(R) Core(TM) 2 Extreme processor X6800( 2.93 GHz, 1066 MHz bus

Primary Cache: 32KBI + 32KBD per core, on chip Secondary Cache: 4 MB(I+D) per chip, on chip (shared)

Memory: 2 GB

2003- (3.0 GHz,

Pentium 4 processor with Hyper-Threading Technology)

Primary Cache: 12k micro-ops I + 8KBD on chip Secondary Cache: 512KB(I+D) on chip

Memory: 512 MB

spec 2006 benchmark
SPEC 2006 benchmark

2006:Intel Core 2 Duo E6700 2.67 GHz, 1066 MHz bus

Primary Cache: 32 KB I + 32 KB D on chip per core

Secondary Cache: 4 MB I+D on chip per chip

Memory: 2 GB

2009:Intel Core i7-965 Extreme Edition

Intel Turbo Boost Technology up to 3.46 GHz

Primary Cache: 32 KB I + 32 KB D on chip per core

Secondary Cache: 256 KB I+D on chip per core

L3 Cache: 8 MB I+D on chip per chip

Memory: 12 GB

2007:Intel Core 2 Extreme

QX9650 3.00 GHz

1333 MHz FSB

Primary Cache:32 KB I + 32 KB

D on chip per core

Secondary Cache:12 MB I+D

on chip per chip,

6 MB shared / 2 cores

Memory: 4 GB

2008:Intel Xeon X5270 3.5GHz

Primary Cache: 32 KB I + 32 KB

D on chip per core

Secondary Cache: 6 MB I+D

on chip per chip

Memory: 16 GB

Our Views
  • Focus needs to be on more scalable and robust architecture.
  • Implementing 3-D integration.
  • How about a 128 bit processor?
  • The speed of light problem.
  • The end of Moore’s Law?


  • Koufaty, D. Marr, D.T, “Hyperthreading technology In the netburst Microarchitecture”, Volume: 23 , Issue: 2, page(s): 56 – 65.
  • Lu Peng, Jih-Kwon Peir, Prakash, T.K., Yen-Kuang Chen, Koppelman, D, “Memory Performance and Scalability of Intel's and AMD's Dual-Core Processors: A Case Study”, Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference, 2007. IPCCC 2007. IEEE International 11-13 April 2007 Page(s):55 – 64. 
  • Kurd, N., Douglas, J., Mosalikanti, P., Kumar, R., “Next generation Intel® micro-architecture (Nehalem) clocking architecture”, VLSI Circuits, 2008 IEEE Symposium on 18-20 June 2008 Page(s):62 – 63.
  • Varghese George, SanjeevJahagirdar, Chao Tong, Smits, Ken, SatishDamaraju, Siers, Scott, VesNaydenov, TanveerKhondker, SanjibSarkar, Puneet Singh, “Penryn: 45-nm next generation Intel® core™ 2 processor”, Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2007. ASSCC '07. IEEE Asian 12-14 Nov. 2007 Page(s):14 – 17.
  • Chang, J., Ming Huang, Shoemaker, J., Benoit, J., Szu-Liang Chen, Wei Chen, Siufu Chiu, Ganesan, R.; Leong, G., Lukka, V., Rusu, S., Srivastava, D., “The 65-nm 16-MB Shared On-Die L3 Cache for the Dual-Core Intel Xeon Processor 7100 Series”, Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of Volume 42,  Issue 4,  April 2007 Page(s):846 – 852.
  • Bin-fengQian, Li-min Yan, “The research of the inclusive cache used in multi-core processor”,Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, 2008. ICEPT-HDP 2008. International Conference on 28-31 July 2008 Page(s):1 – 4.

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