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Chapter 28 The Atom. Objectives. 28.1 Explain the structure of the atom 28.1 Distinguish continuous spectra from a line spectra 28.1 Contrast emission and absorption spectra 28.1 Solve problems using the orbital radius and energy level equations. Objectives.

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  • 28.1Explain the structure of the atom
  • 28.1 Distinguish continuous spectra from a line spectra
  • 28.1 Contrast emission and absorption spectra
  • 28.1 Solve problems using the orbital radius and energy level equations
  • 28.2Describe the shortcomings of the Bohr model of the atom
  • 28.2 Describe the quantum model of the atom
  • 28.2 Explain how a laser works and describe properties of laser light
different models of the atom
Different Models of the Atom
  • Dalton: Billiard Ball
    • Indivisable
  • J.J. Thomson
    • Plum Pudding Model
  • Rutherford
    • The Nuclear Model (Positive nucleus with orbiting electrons)
    • Others have built on this model
some terms
Some Terms
  • Alpha Particle: Helium Particle with a positive charge
  • Emission Spectrum: Wavelengths emitted by an atom is called its
    • Absorption Spectrum: Same idea, but what wavelengths are absorbed
  • Spectroscope: Used to determine the wavelengths of visible light given off

Continuous Spectrum produced by having very hot objects

    • A theoretical black body produces a continuous spectrum
rutherford vs bohr
Rutherford vs Bohr
  • Rutherford: Electrons orbit like a planet orbits a star (Planetary model of the atom)
  • Issues: Falling into nucleus, radiating all wavelengths
bohr model
Bohr Model
  • Energy Quantized: Electrons only fall when giving off energy
  • Falls and jumps correspond to certain energies
  • Energy Levels: Refers to the orbital's around the nucleus (Noted as n = 1, n = 2). Also called the Quantum Numbers
  • Ground State: When an electron has the lowest energy level allowed
  • Excited State: When an electron has absorbed energy and has moved to a higher orbital. Don’t last long (nanoseconds) at the level before falling
from last chapter
From Last Chapter
  • hf (energy emitted) = Eexcited – Eground

What wavelength of light is required to make hydrogen’s electron jump from n = 1 to

    • N = 2
    • N = 3
    • N = 4
elements beyond hydrogen
Elements beyond Hydrogen
  • Require different amounts of ionization energy (Graph shows outside electron)
  • Top Right
atom size
Atom Size
  • Large = More Lines
  • Uranium on Bottom
  • Hydrogen on Top
molecules verse atoms
Molecules verse Atoms
  • Would also have a much larger range of emission lines and spectra

How many eV’s required for Helium’s 588nm emission? How many eV’s required for Heliums 402nm emission?

how much energy between shells
How much energy between shells?
  • Follows (1/n2)
  • If the n = 1 is equal to – 16 eV, how many eV of energy does a
    • N = 2 electron have?
      • - 16 eV x (1/22) = - 4 eV
    • N = 4 electron have?
  • How much energy is released going from N = 4 to N = 2? What wavelength is that?
back to waves
Back to Waves
  • Electron Cloud: Represents a high (90%) probability of finding an electron
  • Quantum Mechanics: The Study of the properties of matter using its wave properties
  • Coherent Light: When waves of light are in sync with one another, maxima and minima lining up
  • Create Coherent Light by Stimulated Emission
  • An electron in an excited state hit by a photon will fall releasing light in phase with the light that hit it