Biology Partnership (A Teacher Quality Grant) Human Systems Nancy Dow Jill Hansen Tammy Stundon
Pre-test Breaks Explanation of Q & A boards Asking questions Our approach to the standards & to this lesson
Florida Next Generation Sunshine State Standards • SC.912.L.14.26 Identify the major parts of the brain on diagrams or models. (LOW) • Low Complexity 10%-20%Low complexity benchmarks rely heavily on the recall and recognition of previously learned concepts and principles. These benchmarks typically specify what the student is to do, which is often to carry out a procedure that can be preformed mechanically. It is not left to the student to come up with an original method or solution. Skills related to low complexity benchmarks include the following. • Identify a common example or recognize a concept • Retrieve information from a chart, table, diagram, or graph • Recognize a standard scientific representation of a simple phenomenon • Calculate or complete a familiar single-step procedure or equation using a reference sheet
Item Specs BENCHMARK SC.912.L.14.26 • Reporting Category Organisms, Populations, and Ecosystems • Standard Standard 14Organization and Development of Living Organisms • Benchmark SC.912.L.14.26 Identify the major parts of the brain on diagrams or models. • Benchmark Clarification Students will identify the major parts of the brain on diagrams. • Content Limits Items are limited to the cerebrum, cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, brain stem, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe. Items will not assess the function of the major parts of the brain. • Stimulus Attribute Items will include diagrams of the brain. • Response Attributes None specified • Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.6.L.14.5.
Bell ringer Pinky and the Brain!
Id parts of the brain Parietal Lobe Frontal Lobe Temporal Lobe Occipital Lobe
Id parts of the Brain • Handout (copies of label the brain) to label with web quest • Sheep Brain • Swimmer Cap activity
Follow up • Q/A Board • Problem solving issues in class • Additional activities • Sheep Brain Dissection • Perception and the Brain- optical illusions
Florida Next Generation Sunshine State Standards • SC.912.L.14.36 Describe the factors affecting blood flow through the cardiovascular system. (MODERATE) • Moderate Complexity 60%-80%Benchmarks in the moderate complexity category involve more flexible thinking and choice among alternatives. These benchmarks require a student response that goes beyond the habitual, is not specified, and ordinarily has more than a single step or thought process. The student is expected to decide what to do – using informal methods of reasoning and problem solving strategies – and to bring together skills and knowledge from various domains. Skills related to moderate complexity benchmarks include the following. • Apply or infer relationships among facts, terms, properties, or variables • Describe examples and non examples of scientific processes or concepts • Predict or determine the logical next step or outcome • Compare or contrast structures or functions of different organisms or systems • Choose the appropriate formula or equation to solve a problem and then solve it • Apply and use concepts from a standard scientific model or theory
Item Specs BENCHMARK SC.912.L.14.36 • Reporting Category Organisms, Populations, and Ecosystems • Standard Standard 14Organization and Development of Living Organisms • Benchmark SC.912.L.14.36 Describe the factors affecting blood flow through the cardiovascular system. • Benchmark • Clarification Students will identify factors that affect blood flow and/or describe how these factors affect blood flow through the cardiovascular system. • Content Limits Items may address factors such as blood pressure, blood volume, resistance, disease (atherosclerosis), and exercise. Compare the blood vessels – tissues, thickness, blood flow rates, resistance • Stimulus Attributes None specified • Response Attributes None specified • Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.6.L.14.5.
Cardiovascular Flow • The Heart • Blood flow: • Artery & Vein composition • Heart – flow of blood • Blood pressure vs. osmotic pressure • Skeletal muscle contraction
endothelium smooth muscle valve connective tissue ARTERY VEIN CAPILLARIES arteriole venule
Arteries, veins, and capillaries transport blood to all parts of the body. • Arteries carry blood away from the heart. • blood under great pressure • thicker, more muscular walls • Veins carry blood back to the heart • blood under less pressure • thinner walls, larger diameter • valves prevent backflow • Capillaries move blood between veins, arteries, and cells. • One layer, one cell thick
systolic pressure: left ventricle contracts • diastolic pressure: left ventricle relaxes • Blood pressure is a measure of the force of blood pushing against artery walls. • High blood pressure can precede a heart attack or stroke.
How the heart pumpsWhat makes the blood move through the heart? * cardiac muscle* difference in thickness of wall* valves • Blood flow animation • Besides the composition of the blood vessels, the heart, and blood pressure, what else can affect the heart rate? External factors?
Atherosclerosis • a condition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the accumulation of fatty materials such as cholesterol. • This is linked to high fat diets and lack of exercise.
Follow up • Q/A board • Problem solving issues in class • Additional activities • Interactive Tutorial on Internal Heart Anatomy • Heart Dissection on You Tube • How to Measure BP and What It All Means
Florida Next Generation Sunshine State Standards • SC.912.L.14.52 Explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics. (MODERATE) • HE.912.C.1.8 Analyze strategies for prevention, detection and treatment of communicable and chronic diseases.
BENCHMARK SC.912.L.14.52 • Reporting Category Organisms, Populations, and Ecosystems • Standard Standard 14Organization and Development of Living Organisms • Benchmark SC.912.L.14.52 Explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics. (Also assesses SC.912.L.14.6, HE.912.C.1.4, and HE.912.C.1.8.) • Also Assesses SC.912.L.14.6 Explain the significance of genetic factors, environmental factors, and pathogenic agents to health from the perspectives of both individual and public health. HE.912.C.1.4 Analyze how heredity and family history can impact personal health. HE.912.C.1.8 Analyze strategies for prevention, detection, and treatment of communicable and chronic diseases. • Benchmark • Clarifications Students will identify and/or explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune responses. Students will describe how the human immune system responds to vaccines and/or antibiotics. Students will explain the significance of genetic factors, environmental factors, and pathogenic agents to health from the perspective of both individual and public health. • Content Limits Items assessing the significance of genetic factors, environmental factors, and pathogenic agents to health are limited to a conceptual understanding. • Stimulus Attribute Scenarios are limited to those commonly included in a biology course. • Response Attributes None specified • Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply scientific knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge of SC.6.L.14.6, SC.6.E.7.8, SC.8.N.4.1, and SC.8.N.4.2.
Immune Bell ringer Osmosis Jones Vaccine Clip • Immune System is a body system that fights infection & prevents illnesses • Immunity: • the ability of the body to defend itself against infectious agents, foreign cells, and abnormal body cells (ex. cancer)
Line of Defense • 1st Line: barriers • Broad, external defense • “Walls and Moats” • skin & mucus membranes • 2nd Line: Nonspecific patrol • Broad, internal defense • “Patrolling soldiers” • phagocytes eating WBC’s • 3rd Line: Immune System • Specific, acquired immunity • Elite trained units • lymphocyte WBCs & antibodies • B & T cells
1st line: Physical Barriers • Non-specific defense • External barriers • skin –physically blocks pathogens • mucus membranes- traps particles • in nose and throat • excretions • sweat • tears • mucus • stomach acids • saliva (“lick your wounds”) Lining of trachea: ciliated cells & mucus secreting cells
2nd Line of Defense Non-specific Inflammatory reaction • Four outward signs (redness, heat, swelling, & pain) • Histamine is released which cause capillaries to become enlarged • and more permeable • (causes redness, • swelling, pain) White Blood cells Non-specific (macrophage)
3rd Line of Defense - Specific Defense • Pathogens, cancer cells, or foreign cells have protein markers on surface (antigens) that activate the immune system because foreign to body Types of White Blood Cells • all made in the bone marrow • All called in after the non-specific WBCs • B lymphocyte cells (mature in bone marrow) • produce antibodies that combine with antigens and target particular pathogens • Produce memory B cells • T lymphocyte cells (mature in thymus gland) • directly destroy infected cells • produce cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, and memory T cells
Immunity • Active • Body creates an immune response after being exposed to a pathogen or a vaccine • Memory cells are produced so this immunity lasts (sometimes even a lifetime) • Passive • Antibodies in breast milk or shots of antibodies provide a temporary immune response
Antibiotics kill pathogens inside the body • antibiotics cause pathogens to burst • target on specific bacterium or fungus • not effective against viruses • antibiotic resistance issues Antibiotics have killed the bottom cell by weakening its cell wall and causing it to burst. (colored TEM; magnification 55,000X
A bacterium carriesgenes for antibioticresistance on a plasmid. A copy of the plasmid is transferredthrough conjugation. Resistance is quicklyspread throughmany bacteria. • Some bacteria in a population have genes that make them immune to antibiotics. • These bacteria spread the gene, making the antibiotics useless. • Antibiotic resistance can cause medicines to become ineffective.
Vaccines artificially produce acquired immunity. • Vaccines also control pathogens and disease. • given to prevent illness • contain the antigen of a weakened pathogen
Antigens in a vaccinetrigger an immune response, and memory B cells are made. 1 memory B cells 2 A memory B cell isstimulated when the real pathogen binds to it. The B cell quickly activates and makes antibodies that fight the pathogens before you get sick. 3 • Vaccination provides acquired immunity. • stimulates a specific immune response • causes memory cells to be produced • allows immune system to respond quickly to infection • has such a fast response, a person will not get sick
Allergies • Our body releases histamine which makes vessels leaky • Histamine causes the mucus membranes of the nose and eyes to release fluid as a defense against pathogens • This produces cold-like symptoms • With anaphylatic shock, the capillaries become so permeable that blood pressure drops
Immunity from Disease ActivityWe’ve got a problem! Then…… • HIV lab • Glow germs
Follow up • Problem solving issues in class • Additional activities: • Malaria interactive game • Id agents of disease research activity • Antibodies Virtual Lab /
Human reproductive systemfetal development SC.912.L.16.13 Describe the basic anatomy and physiology of the human reproductive system. Describe the process of human development from fertilization to birth and major changes that occur in each trimester of pregnancy. (MODERATE)
BENCHMARK SC.912.L.16.13 • Reporting Category Organisms, Populations, and Ecosystems • Standard Standard 16Heredity and Reproduction • Benchmark SC.912.L.16.13 Describe the basic anatomy and physiology of the human reproductive system. Describe the process of human development from fertilization to birth and major changes that occur in each trimester of pregnancy. • Benchmark Clarifications Students will identify and/or describe the basic anatomy and physiology of the human reproductive system. Students will describe the process of human development from the zygotic stage to the end of the third trimester and birth. • Content Limits Items referring to the male human reproductive system are limited to the seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vas deferens, urethra, epididymis, scrotum, penis, and testes. Items referring to the female human reproductive system are limited to the ovaries, oviduct (fallopian tube), uterus, cervix, and vagina. Items assessing the function of the placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic sac, and amniotic fluid are limited to how these structures relate to the development of the fetus. Items will not assess physiological or hormonal changes of the mother during pregnancy. Items assessing the production of hormones in the context of the physiology of the human reproductive system are limited to a conceptual understanding of the production of hormones.
Content limits cont. Items will not assess hormonal control during pregnancy. Items may refer to the early stages of development (implantation, morula, blastocyst, gastrulation, neurulation) but will not assess the definition of these terms. Items referring to changes in each trimester are limited to normal human development. Items will not assess specific knowledge of malformations in the human fetus, miscarriages, maternal preexisting conditions, genetic conditions, or the impact of exposure to environmental conditions. Items will not assess the utilization of technology to assist in or prevent fertilization or monitor development of the fetus. Items will not address or assess the menstrual cycle. • Stimulus Attribute Illustrations or diagrams may be used. • Response Attributes None specified • Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply scientific knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge of SC.6.L.14.5.
Male Reproductive System Scrotum contains: • Testes • The seminiferous tubules producesperm and testosterone • Require a low temperature • Sperm live up to 72 hrs. in a female • Epididymis -folds of tissue (700 ft long) • Lies on top of the testes • Sperm mature here with aid from helper sperm (mask the 23 chromosome sperm from immune system)
Vas deferens • Connects the external scrotum to the internal pathway. • Curves around the bladder, stores sperm, empties into the urethra • Sperm travel through this during ejaculation • Urethra • glands including the prostate gland produce a fluid that combines with the sperm to produce semen, enters here • semen flows through the urethra along with sperm during ejaculation (out the penis)
Female Reproductive system (oviduct)
Female Reproductive System • Ovaries - pair, internal • Mature and release one egg/month • Matures in the follicles within the ovaries • Born with all the eggs a female will ever have • 2 million at birth; 200-400 thousand at puberty; 400 will mature and be released • Once the egg has been released by the follicles, the follicles will release hormones for child development if fertilization takes place
Female Reproduction • Oviducts or Fallopian tubes • Feathery like projections • After ovulation (releasing of the egg) occurs, the egg enters one of the oviducts • This is where fertilization occurs as the egg only lives 6-24 hrs. • The egg can’t move so it relies on cilia that lines the duct to cause a current along with muscle contraction (cramps at ovulation) • Fertilized egg zygote embryo
Uterus • Embryo will embed itself in lining of uterus • This causes a hormone to be released (+ pregnancy test result) • Embryo will develop into a fetus • Uterus: 5 cm wide but expands to 30 cm • Thick walled muscular organ above the bladder • Cervix • This opening connects the vagina to the uterus • Opening is usually 1 cm wide, but during birth, expands to 10 cm • Vagina • Birth canal, site of sexual intercourse, site of menstruation – acidic for immunity reasons
blastocyst uterine wall Implantation of blastocyst Fetal Development The fertilized egg implants into the uterus and is nourished by the placenta and umbilical cord. • The zygote becomes a blastocyst and implants in the uterus.