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Protecting Critical Facilities from Flood Risk
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  1. Protecting Critical Facilities from Flood Risk Tennessee Association of Floodplain Management July 27, 2011 Roy McClure DHS/FEMA Region IV

  2. This control panel was inundated with 3 feet of floodwater (yellow arrow). Sensitive electronic equipment was damaged (Columbus Junction, IA).

  3. This emergency generator—elevated 2 feet above the floor on a concrete base—was not directly affected by floodwaters, but was rendered ineffective because the transfer switch was mounted below the transformer and flooded during the event (Cedar Rapids, Iowa).

  4. What is a Critical Facility? • A facility that is essential for community’s vitality.

  5. Critical Systems • Electrical systems (including power, life-safety, communication, and IT equipment) • Plumbing systems (including water, sanitary, and mechanical piping) • Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems • Specialized equipment (including conveyance, medical, and detention equipment)

  6. What is a Critical Facility? • Man-made structures and improvements: • Have potential to cause serious bodily harm • Have potential to cause extensive property damage • If damaged, would cause disruption of vital services

  7. What is a Critical Facility? • Essential Governmental Facilities • Essential facilities • Transportation systems • Lifeline utility systems • High Potential Loss Facilities • Hazardous Materials Storage Facilities

  8. What is a Critical Facility? • Impacts of even the smallest chance of flooding too great? • If flooded, would add another dimension to the flood? • Could the facility be evacuated without loss of life? • Would essential records/services be lost? • Would services by facility be disrupted? • Police, Fire, EOC, Hospitals • Data centers, Schools, Water Treatment Plants • Sewer Treatment Plants

  9. Governing Regulations • Executive Order 11988 • Flood Damage Prevention Ordinances • State/Local Building Codes • Coastal Zone Management Regulations • Erosion and Sediment Control • Special Purpose Ordinances

  10. Factors affecting Flood Damage • Channel/floodplain obstructions • Erosion/Sedimentation • Increased upland development • Subsidence • Wave/Debris impacts • Failure of levees • Failure of dams

  11. Flood Loads • Hydrostatic loads • Buoyancy • Hydrodynamic loads • Breaking wave loads • Debris impact loads • Long-term erosion and local scour

  12. Vulnerability to Flood Damage • Site Damage • Erosion/scour • Debris/sediment removal • Landscaping • Fences • Accessory structures • Access roads • Parking lots/garage • Drainage facilities Collapsed fence Road damage

  13. Vulnerability to Flood Damage • Structural Damage • Load-bearing walls • Floors • Collapse • Nonstructural Damage • Mold above flood level • Cabinets/finishes Ruptured floor Cracked wall Collapse by scour

  14. Vulnerability to Flood Damage • Utility System Damage • Displacement of equipment • Elevators • Corrosion • Generators • Tanks • Water/sewer Generator elevated, but failed to operate due to submergence

  15. Vulnerability to Flood Damage • Contents Damage • Furniture • Computers • Appliances • Records • Kitchen goods • Vehicles Kitchen appliances and equipment displaced Medical records saturated by floodwaters

  16. Risk Reduction in A-Zones • Site Modifications • Earthen fill • Excavation • Earthen levee • Floodwall Levee Floodwall

  17. Risk Reduction in A-Zones • Elevation Considerations • Slab-on-grade on fill • Stem wall foundation • Column foundation • Crawlspace Municipal building on fill Stem wall foundation Lowest Floor ≥ (0.2% (500-year) flood elevation + FB) Column foundation

  18. Risk Reduction in A-Zones Intended to reduce only physical damage • Floodproofing Considerations • Limit for flood velocities ≤ 5 fps • Warning time ≥ 12 hours (w/o a warning system) • At least 1 exit door for escape above the DFE • Approved emergency plan, posted in 2 locations • Location of panels and hardware • Entity and methods of installation • Schedule for maintenance • Schedule for periodic practices and drills ASCE-24

  19. Risk Reduction in V-Zones • Considerations • Bottom of lowest horizontal structural member of the Lowest Floor ≥ (0.2% (500-year) flood elevation + FB) • Elevated on pilings or columns • Free-of-obstruction below the Lowest Floor • Breakaway walls an option below Lowest Floor • Corrosion-resistant connections • Use below LF (parking, storage, building access)

  20. Risk Reduction in V-Zones • Higher foundations than the DFE • Scour and erosion • Flood-borne debris • Continuous load path (corrosion-resistant connections) • Emergency equipment well above the DFE • Use lowest elevated floor to non-critical uses not to impair critical functioning during post-flood recovery

  21. Risk Reduction in Coastal A-Zones • Breaking waves from 1.5 to 3 feet high; landward of V-Zone or open coast with no V-Zone • Significantly more damage potential • ASCE-24 requires V-Zone standards • Floodproofing may be less feasible alternative • Corrosion-resistant connections • Use limitations below LF (parking, storage, and building access)

  22. Risk Reduction in A- and V-Zones • Material Considerations • Flood resistant (extended contact) • Non-coastal: 72 hours • Coastal: 12 hours • USACE Classes acceptable • Class 5 • Class 4 • Ref.: NFIP Technical Bulletin 2

  23. Risk Reduction for Related facilities • Access roads • Safety factors • Floodplain and environmental impacts • Drainage structures and surface design • Utility installations • Potable water and wastewater systems • Storage tank installations • Accessory structures Equipment room with water-tight door

  24. OVERALL

  25. Reducing Flood Losses • Locate outside the 0.2 % (500-year) floodplain • Elevation • At least to 0.2% flood elevation • Floodproofing • At least to 0.2% flood elevation • Effective for only up to 3 to 4 feet of floodwater • Good for protection of equipment In all cases, maintain dry land ingress and egress for ordinary and emergency vehicles above the 0.2% flood elevation.

  26. Hazard Mitigation Measures • Incorporate at all stages and levels of: • Planning • Design • Maintenance • Reconstruction • Rehabilitation Elevated utility box

  27. Resources • National Flood Insurance Program Home page • www.fema.gov/business/nfip • FEMA 543 – Design Guide for Improving Critical Facility Safety from Flooding and High Winds, January 2007 • Technical Bulletins • 2. Association of State Floodplain Managers, Inc. • www.floods.org • Critical Facilities and Flood Risk • Executive Order 11988 • Water Resources Council -- Floodplain Management Guidelines for Implementing EO 11988, February 10, 1978

  28. Roy McClureroy.mcclure@dhs.gov770-220-8835Susan Wilsonsusan.wilson@dhs.gov770-220-5414 Risk Reduction Questions? NFIP P Insurance Flood Hazard