Overview • The RadNet air monitoring program • Monitor placement and use • RadNet Website
Ancient History • Monitoring Since 1956 • Fallout from atmospheric testing • Partial Test Ban Treaty – 10 Oct 1963 • US, UK & Former Soviet Union • China exploded an atmospheric weapon in ’80 • Monitoring Programs Combined by EPA in 1973 - ERAMS
ERAMS • Environmental • Radiation • Ambient • Monitoring • System
What Changed in 1973? • Fallout levels dropping • Nuclear Facilities are in operation • Environmental Impacts • Nuclear Fuel Cycle • Population dose tracking maintained • Radiation Accident Assessment • We detected the effects of Chernobyl
ERAMS Media • Environmental Radioactivity • Air • Water • Rain • Surface • Drinking • Pasteurized Milk
Why RadNet? Why now? • Wake-up call in 2001 • Technological Advances • Real time monitoring • Telemetry • Better Data Quality • Added Flexibility • Internet • Deployables
The RadNet Program • EPA is developing a nationwide environmental radiation monitoring system known as RadNet - To track national / regional ambient radiation levels - To identify the degree and extent of contamination in the event of an emergency • RadNet - Supports EPA’s role in incident assessment - Focuses on monitoring potential impacts to population and public health
The RadNet Program • RadNet will provide data quickly in the event of a radiation incident to • Decision makers, dispersion modelers, nuclear/radiation health experts • RadNet is not intended to • Monitor nuclear facilities • Provide an early warning system for nuclear accidents • Provide a means to monitor in the immediate locality of the incident – this is addressed by other assets
The RadNet Program • EPA’s radiation programs are involved in a wide range of intra- and interagency activities to prepare us to assist others before, during and after emergencies. • EPA’s upgraded air monitoring network, RadNet, with its new near real-time capability will serve as an additional response asset in all phases on an incident.
The RadNet Program • RadNet consists of • Up to 180 new Fixed Air Monitors to provide national coverage and data during routine conditions • 40 mobile monitors (Deployable Air Monitors) to improve system coverage around an incident • The RadNet program includes • Near real-time gamma spectrometry • Telemetry to send data automatically • Improved field screening instruments for operators to quickly monitor gross alpha and beta radiation • Increased number of monitors to improve coverage
The RadNet Program Beginning in 2006 and continuing through 2012, EPA is placing new radiation air monitors in the largest population centers across the United States. EPA is also evaluating additional criteria to ensure optimal national coverage when RadNet becomes fully operational. • Fixed Air Monitors
The RadNet Program Up to 180 air monitors will be installed by 2012 • Fixed Air Monitor Network (initial 93 locations) * Raleigh currently installed at EPA RTI wind tunnel for particle size study.
The RadNet Program Fixed radiation air monitoring stations have a high volume air sampler, a gamma spectrometry detector and a beta detector, allowing for continuous monitoring of gamma and beta radiation emanating from particles collected on the air filter. • Fixed Air Monitors In addition, the air filters are sent to the EPA’s lab in Montgomery, AL (NAREL) for more sensitive analysis and further identification of radionuclides.
The RadNet Program Each fixed air monitor also provides near real-time capability and sends data directly to the NAREL facility automatically- a feature shared with RadNet’s deployable air monitors. Near real-time data is transmitted by satellite telemetry, cell phone, telephone modem, and internet communications. • Fixed Air Monitors
The RadNet Program • Deployable Air Monitors A deployable air monitor is a unit that can be delivered to an incident, where it measures environmental gamma radiation levels in near real-time, and also collects airborne radioactivity samples for laboratory analysis. Forty deployable air monitors are maintained, ready to deploy, at the Montgomery, Alabama and Las Vegas, Nevada laboratories. They are designed to be set up around the scene of a radiological incident or the location of an imminent threat.
Radiation Detection RadNet Instrumentation • Alpha & Beta Detection • RadNet fixed monitors measure beta radiation using a solid state Silicon detector • Gamma Detection • RadNet deployable monitors: two energy-compensated Geiger Mueller detectors • RadNet fixed monitors: Sodium Iodide detector
60Co Radiation Detection RadNet Instrumentation • Gamma Detection (continued) • RadNet deployable monitors’ Geiger-Mueller tubes indicate levels up to 1 R per hour. • RadNet fixed monitor NaI detectors able to identify individual isotopes.
Region 2 Monitors 6 RadNet fixed air monitors planned for Region 2 during initial 93 installations nationwide • Fixed Air Monitors Planned for Region 2 * Raleigh currently installed at EPA RTI wind tunnel for particle size study.
Region 2 Monitors Upcoming Installations Installed Suffolk Co. Rochester New York Edison, NJ Lockport (Buffalo) San Juan • Four monitors installed (50 installed nationwide)
Deployable Air Monitor Use There are two broad categories of radiological incidents where the deployable monitors would be useful: 1. A radiation release creating one or more sites, around which the Deployables could be set up to monitor the perimeter 2. A radiation release from a foreign source, resulting in radioactivity impacting very large areas of the U.S.
Deployable Air Monitor Use Two scenarios may illustrate possible siting strategies: • Scenario #1 – Locate deployable monitors around an incident or an immediate threat • Scenario #2 – Locate deployable monitors to supplement fixed monitor coverage
Placement criteria • Deployable Air Monitor Use Siting Scenario #1 Locate deployable monitors around an incident or an immediate threat
Fixed stations detecting contamination Fixed stations detecting contamination in lab Fixed stations not detecting contamination Deployable stations Siting Scenario #2 Locate deployables to complement the fixed RadNet stations by monitoring the perimeter of a radiation incident site and adding greatly to the amount of data collected by RadNet for the incident. This illustration shows the general concept of placing the deployables around an incident site, primarily to ensure that areas presumed to be safe for the public continue to be safe.
RadNet website will serve as one mechanism to provide data quickly in the event of a radiation incident to: • Decision makers, dispersion modelers, nuclear/radiation health experts • The public
Data from Deployable RadNet monitor operating in Montgomery, AL (last Thursday)
Summary • EPA’s RadNet radiation monitoring system - Tracks national / regional ambient radiation levels - Identifies the degree and extent of contamination in the event of an emergency • The RadNet Program - Supports EPA’s role in incident assessment - Focuses on monitoring potential impacts to population and public health
The Scenario Based on Continuation of Top Off 4 Exercise ▪ Transportation accident releases radioactive material ▪ Urban scene ▪ Inhalation issues ▪ Resuspension issues ▪ Lab analysis ▪ Full augmentation of the federal interagency (FRMAC Phase 3)
EMPIRE 2009 • Draft Scenario • A large-scale release of radiological material in the city of Albany, New York potentially effecting areas down-wind, and requiring immediate and intermediate response actions, and long-term recovery decision-making
Demonstrate integration and interactions of Federal, State, and local nuclear/radiological emergency response assets under NIMS/ICS Unified Command Demonstrate effective public information during the emergency and intermediate phases Interstate participation with New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts with the State of New York Exercise interactions of Federal, State, and local nuclear/radiological emergency response assets operating in virtual mode during the initial phases (i.e. State, local EOCs and ICs, CMHT, and A-Team) Demonstrate monitoring and assessment of people and the environment, ingestion pathway analysis Exercise Goals
Assumptions and Artificialities • JFO and national SIMCELLs will be available to support this exercise, if requested • Agencies will fully implement the current NRF prior to the exercise
Upcoming Planning Meetings/Conferences • Initial Planning Conference – April 30 – May 1, 2008 • Mid-Term Planning Conference –September 2008 • Master Scenario Events List Conference – November 2008 • Final Planning Conference – February 2009 • Facilitated Discussion-Based Exercise –Apr 2009 • Full-Scale Exercise –June 2-5, 2009 • After-Action Conference • Facilitated Discussion-Based Exercise –Sep 2009
Facilitated Discussion-Based Exercise – Apr & Sep 09 Goals –Apr 09 • First responder activities • FBI crime investigation • 48-hour time jump for STARTEX Goals –Sep 09 • Address long-term recovery issues • Transfer control of FRMAC to EPA • Other long-term / post-incident measures