remote manipulation telerobotics n.
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Remote manipulation/telerobotics. adapted from: <http://www.ornl.gov/rpsd/humfac/page01d00.html>. Sources:. Wickens et al. <http://www.ornl.gov/rpsd/humfac/page01d00.html> a good site from the Oak Ridge National Lab

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remote manipulation telerobotics
Remote manipulation/telerobotics

adapted from: <http://www.ornl.gov/rpsd/humfac/page01d00.html>

sources
Sources:
  • Wickens et al.
  • <http://www.ornl.gov/rpsd/humfac/page01d00.html>
    • a good site from the Oak Ridge National Lab
    • contains several essays on the human factors aspects of telerobotics and teleoperation
  • Milgram, P., Zhai, S., and Drascic, D. (1993) Applications of augmented reality for human-robot communication.Proceedings of IROS’93: International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Yokohama, Japan. <http://vered.rose.utoronto.ca/people/david_dir/IROS93/IROS93.full.html>
definitions
Definitions
  • telerobots
    • robots that are not autonomous, but are controlled to some degree by human operators
  • teleoperator
    • “… robotic devices that synergistically combine human and machine.”
  • operator replication metaphor
    • provide display and control systems through which the human operator observes and controls the robot in an attempt to replicate the operator’s motor and cognitive capabilities at the remote site.
  • telepresence - 3 definitions
    • simple - “the ability to operate in a remote world”
    • cybernetic- “an index of the quality of the human-machine interface”
    • experiential - “a mental state in which a user feels physically present within the remote world.”
applications
Applications
  • Remote manipulation
    • undersea
    • planetary
  • Hazardous manipulation
    • hazardous materials
    • hazardous environments
teleoperation tasks
Teleoperation tasks
  • The tasks involved in teleoperation include a mix of ...
    • programming
    • teaching
    • controlling
    • commanding
    • monitoring
  • Depending on the location and nature of the task, issues involve
    • level of control
    • time delays
    • situation awareness (including depth perception and image quality)
    • force proprioceptive feedback
level of control
Level of control

adapted from: <http://www.ornl.gov/rpsd/humfac/page01d00.html>

time delays
Time delays
  • Transmission delays
    • information from remote site
    • control action and response
  • Sluggish response of system being controlled
  • Time to translate control actions into appropriate machine activities
situation awareness telepresence
Situation awareness (telepresence)
  • Depth perception
    • 3D stereoscopic displays
    • display enhancements
  • Image quality
    • improving camera / display technology
    • enhanced image
  • Field of view
    • wide angle lens / large display
    • scanning
  • Absolute vs relative judgements of distance, size, etc.
    • display aiding
    • control aiding
    • virtual reality technology
force proprioceptive feedback
Force & proprioceptive feedback
  • Control force and speed of movement of telerobot
    • 1st and 2nd order control issues
  • Proprioceptive feedback - force “reflection”
    • magnitude of forces or torques acting on an object - kinesthetic
    • distribution of forces on the manipulator - tactile
  • Advantages:
    • when forces applied to the remote area are important (e.g., to prevent damage to telerobot or the objects being manipulated)
    • when visual display of task components require guidance or assembly in areas are obscured for some reason
  • Disadvantages:
    • Requires additional processing, increasing delays
    • Increases system friction and inertia, reducing responsiveness
hf design of teleoperated systems
HF Design of teleoperated systems
  • Understand the requirements, constraints, and environmental factors
    • Model the system, task, and environment
  • Determine the information and action requirements (including level of control) of the operator
    • Based on an understanding of the system, task, and environment
  • Determine appropriate displays, controls, and aiding
    • Based on an understanding of human cognitive, information processing, and response, as well as design guidelines and issues
    • Understand the tradeoffs involved.
ecological approaches
Ecological Approaches
  • Appropriate for design of systems to support human operators in complex, dynamic environments.
  • Founded on ecological psychology
    • “Simon’s Ant” example
    • Contrast with cognitivist approaches
  • Requires understanding of the system and environment within which the operator is working.
ecological interface design eid
Ecological Interface Design (EID)
  • Based on the SRK taxonomy
  • Focus is on environmental constraints and system function
an example
An Example
  • DURESS (DUal REservoir Simulation System)
    • Process control example
    • Small feedwater stream
    • 6 valves, 2 pumps, 2 heaters

(from: Vicente, K.J. and Rasmussen, J. (1990) The ecology of human machine systems II: Mediating direct perception in complex work domains. Ecological Psychology, 2(3), pp.207-249)