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technology
Technology

The application of knowledge, skills, and resources to solve human problems and extend human capabilities. It is an applied scientific study of the human-made world. Technology can be broken into the following nine applied sciences or core technologies. These core technologies are the foundation of every technology system.

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9 Core Technologies

THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF TECHNOLOGY

bio technology
Bio Technology

The technology of using, adapting, and altering organisms and biological processes for a desired outcome.

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Applications of Bio Technology

Agriculture

  • Hybrids
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Cloning
  • ControlledEnvironmental Agriculture
  • Hydroponics
  • Aquaculture
  • Integrated Pest Management
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Hybrids

A hybrid is the offspring of two plants (or animals) of different varieties, breeds, or species. The hybrid has characteristics of both its “parents”.

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Example

NAMING HYBRID BIG CATS

Only those hybrids which have been assigned names are listed. The usual convention is a "portmanteau word" comprising first part of male parent's name then second part of female parent's name (occasionally first part of male parent's name then first part of the female's name). Complex hybrids use the first part of the male parent's name followed by the original hybrid name.. The number of hypothetical hybrids is extensive.

FatherMotherOffspringNotes

Lion Tiger Liger Tawny, golden and white forms.

Tiger Lion Tigon Tawny, golden and white forms.

Lion Liger Li-liger More lion-like.

Lion Tigon Li-tigon More lion-like.

Tiger Liger Ti-liger (tig-liger) More tiger-like.

Tiger Tigon Ti-tigon More tiger-like.

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Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering gives organisms traits they never had naturally. One way is by altering the organism’s normal genetic code. Another way is by moving one organism's DNA into another.

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Cloning

Cloning is the process of making a genetically identical organism through nonsexual means.

The following three types of cloning technologies: (1) recombinant DNA technology or DNA cloning (2) reproductive cloning

(3) therapeutic cloning

Reproductive cloning

Therapeutic cloning

DNA cloning

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Controlled Environmental Agriculture

Controlled environment agriculture (CEA) integrates mechanization, computer-control and advanced sensors, intensive management of nutrition and pests, and any of a number of structures to develop highly productive, high-quality crops.

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Hydroponics

Hydroponics is often defined as "the cultivation of plants in water." Research has since determined that many different aggregates or media will support plant growth; therefore, the definition of hydroponics has been broadened to read "the cultivation of plants without soil."

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Aquaculture

Aquaculture is the rearing of fish, shellfish, or plants in water under controlled conditions.

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Integrated Pest Management
  • Integrated Pest Management combines various techniques to control pest.
  • Mechanical controls
  • Cultural controls
  • Biological controls
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Applications of Bio Technology

Health Care

  • Prevention of Disease
  • Diagnosis of Disease
  • Treatment of Disease
  • Prosthetics
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Prevention of Disease

Prevention refers to lowering the risk of disease.

This is largely because the most common diseases in developed nations today are chronic disease -- like heart disease and cancer. And chronic diseases tend to be caused by a combination of many different factors, some of which are under a person's control (like diet), some of which are out of person's control (like age), and some of which are still unknown. With so many factors driving risk -- only a portion of which can actually be changed -- the realistic goal of prevention becomes lowering the risk of disease, not eliminating it.

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Diagnosis of Disease

To identify a disease or illness by the signs and symptoms.

Methods:

  • Laboratory Tests
  • Instrumental Screening
  • Medical Imaging
  • Surgical Examination
  • Genetic Testing
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Treatment of Disease

One goal of treatment is to cure disease, but when a disease is unknown or incurable, the goal is to relieve symptoms such as pain.

  • Recombinant of DNA
  • Genetic material that has been altered and recombined in the laboratory by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together specific DNA fragments. Many drugs, including the HBV vaccines, are produced using recombinant DNA methods
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Gene Therapy

Gene therapy is a technique for correcting defective genes responsible for disease development.

  • Gene therapy is a technique for correcting defective genes responsible for disease development. Researchers may use one of several approaches for correcting faulty genes:
    • A normal gene may be inserted into a nonspecific location within the genome to replace a nonfunctional gene. This approach is most common.
    • An abnormal gene could be swapped for a normal gene through homologous recombination.
    • The abnormal gene could be repaired through selective reverse mutation, which returns the gene to its normal function.
    • The regulation (the degree to which a gene is turned on or off) of a particular gene could be altered.
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Tissue Engineering

Tissue engineering is the development and manipulation of laboratory-grown molecules, cells, tissues and organs to replace or support the function of defective or injured body parts.

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Surgical Treatments

New surgical tools and techniques have been developed. The provide more effective treatment, with less pain and faster recovery, than traditional surgery.

  • Laser Surgery
  • Cryosurgery
  • Ultrasound
  • Stomach Stapling
  • Angioplasty
  • Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
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Prosthetics

That branch of medicine which deals with that artificial replacement of missing, diseased, or injured body pats.

electrical technology
Electrical Technology

The technology of producing, storing, controlling, transmitting, and getting work from electrical energy.

Generators

Electric motors

Alarm systems

Circuits (parallel & series)

Magnets

Generating systems

Conversion systems

electronics technology
Electronics Technology
  • The technology of using small amounts of electricity for controlling; detecting; and information collecting, storing, retrieving, processing, and communicating.

Computers

Telephones

Radio & Television

DVD

Video

Internet

fluid technology
Fluid Technology

The technology of using fluid either gaseous (pneumatics) or liquids (hydraulics) to apply force or to transport.

Air Pumps

Water pumps

Hydraulics

Pneumatics

materials technology
Materials Technology

The technology of producing, altering, and combining materials.

Metal

Alloys

Nonmetals

Composites

Strength of shapes

Stress

Forces

mechanical technology
Mechanical Technology

The technology of putting mechanical parts together to produce, control, and transmit motion.

Simple machines

Cams

Linkages

Machines

Transportation Methods

optical technology
Optical Technology

The technology of producing light; controlling light; and using light for information collection, processing, storage, retrieval, and communication, and using light to do work.

Microscope

Lasers

Fiber optics

Telescopes

Bar code readers

Scanners

Doppler effect

Refraction

Reflection

structural technology
Structural Technology

The technology of putting parts and materials together to create supports, containers, shelters, connectors, and functional shapes.

Post and Beam

Frame

Mass

Suspension

Cantilever

Pressurized

thermal technology
Thermal Technology

The technology of producing, storing, controlling, transmitting, and getting work from heat energy.

Thermometers

Refrigeration

Heat Pumps

Furnaces

Air conditioners

Insulation

Solar

Radiation

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