Fascism on the Rise Italy . Objective 1: Describe how conditions in Italy favored the rise of Mussolini Objective 2: Understand the values and goals of fascist ideology . Weak Alliances + Weak Governments + Weak Economies = DICTATORSHIPS & TOTALITARIANISM. Fascism on the Rise.
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Fascism on the RiseItaly Objective 1: Describe how conditions in Italy favored the rise of Mussolini Objective 2: Understand the values and goals of fascist ideology
Weak Alliances + Weak Governments + Weak Economies = DICTATORSHIPS & TOTALITARIANISM
Fascism on the Rise • Def: Any centralized, authoritarian government that is not communist whose policies glorify the state (extreme nationalism) over the individual and are destructive to human rights. It is anti-democratic, anti-parliamentary and often anti-Semitic. • Wanted no conflict by class or party and held only a single national purpose • The needs of the state outweigh the needs of the individual • Use fear and police surveillance to keep control
Pre-conditions: Although Italy had been victorious in WWI they still had many issues (lack of industry and education, poverty, cheated out of land?) Strong Roman Catholic influence and socialist party (which had opposed the war) Italy
Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) • Began the party in 1919 along with others (veterans, etc..) who were resentful that Italy had been “cheated” in Paris • Took advantage of social and political unrest . Used fear of Communism and promises of peace to gain support (local goon squads to break up socialist meetings and strikes) • Played up Italian nationalism; make the Mediterranean a “Roman Lake” once again. • Local law enforcement ignored them and eventually they seized control of local government
Gaining Control • Mussolini created the “Black Shirts”, who were militants in the fascist party, wanted violent action instead of a democratic process • Broke up socialist rallies, smashed leftist presses, etc… • Intimidation in Northern Italy caused elected officials to leave • Actions accepted by many Italians who lost faith in their constitutional government
The March on Rome • 1921 elections sent 34 fascists to the chamber of deputies • October of 1922 Mussolini and the Fascists marched on Rome and King Victor Emmanuel III • November 23 1922 king and parliament granted Mussolini dictatorial authority for one year to bring order to local government
Mussolini’s Rule • Il Duce – “the Leader” • Rigged elections, silenced press, placed Fascist officials in normally elected positions • Critics put into prison, exiled, or murdered • State control of the Economy , favored upper class and industrial leaders – hurt workers (strikes forbidden)
By 1926: One party system Heavy Fascist propaganda Secret Police created to enforce gov’t. rule Freedom of speech eliminated "Benito Mussolini loves children a lot. The children of Italy love the Duce a lot. Long live Il Duce !. A salute to Il Duce: Here's to us!". Fascist Ita
State over the Individual - Propaganda “The function of a citizen and a soldier are inseparable” “It is the State which educates its citizens in civic virtue, gives them a consciousness of their mission and welds them into unity.”