goals • 1. List the dominant values in today’s workforce • 2. Describe the relationship between satisfaction and productivity • 3. Explain the theory of cognitive dissonance • 4. Summarize the relationship between attitude and behavior • 5. Explain how two people can see the same thing and interpret it differently • 6. Summarize attribution theory
A—Personality • Our personality shape our behavior. • Why are some people quiet and passive, while others are loud and aggressive? • Are certain personality types better adapted than others for certain job types?
Defining Personality • Gordon Allport : • Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment. • Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.
Personality Determinants • Heredity • Physical stature • Facial attractiveness • Gender • Temperament • Muscle composition and reflexes • Energy level • Biological rhythms • Environment
Personality traits（人格特质） • Enduring characteristics: • Shy • Aggressive • Submissive • Lazy • Ambitious • Loyal • timid
The Myers- Briggs Type Indicator迈尔斯-布里格斯类型指标（MBTI） • MBTI is the most widely used personality-assessment instrument in the world. • Extroverted / Introverted (外向/内向型)E/I • Sensing / Intuitive (领悟/直觉型)S/N • Thinking / Feeling (思维/情感型)T/F • Judging / Perceiving (判断/感知型)J/P • These classifications together describe 16 personality types. • http://www.apesk.com/mbti/dati.asp
The Big Five Personality Model • Extraversion （外倾性） • Extraverts: gregarious, assertive, sociable • Introverts: reserved, timid, queit • Agreeableness （随和性） • High: cooperative, warm, trusting • Low: cold, disagreeable, antagonistic • Conscientiousness （责任心） • High: responsible, organized, dependable, persistent • Low: easily distracted, disorganized, unreliable
Emotional stability （情绪稳定性） • Positive: calm, self-confident, secure • Negative: nervous, anxious, depressed, insecure • Openness to experience （经验的开放性） • High: creative, curious, artistically sensitive • Low: conventional, find comfort in familiar
Type A Personality（A型人格） • Type A’s: • 1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly; • 2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place; • 3. strive to think or do two or more things at once, • 4. cannot cope with leisure time; • 5. are obsesses with numbers, measuring their success in term of how many or how much of everything they acquire.
Type A’s operate under moderate to high level of stress. • Type A’s do better than Type B’s in job interviews.
Self- monitoring(自我监控） • Self- monitoring refers to an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors. • High self-monitors are highly sensitive to external cues and can behave differently in different situations. • They are capable of presenting striking contradictions between their public persona and their private self.
B—Values • Values----basic convictions • “A specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personality or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct end-state of existence”. • Values have both content and intensity attributes. • Content----important • Intensity----how important
Value system represent a prioritizing of individual values. • All of us have a hierarchy or values that forms our value system. • They’re identified by the relative importance an individual assigns to values such as freedom, pleasure, self-respect, honesty, obedience, and equality.
Type of values • Rokeach value survey(罗克奇价值观调查) • Terminal values（终极价值观）- refers to desirable end-states of existence. These are the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. • Instrumental values（工具价值观）- refers to preferable modes of behavior, or means or achieving the terminal values.
Terminal values Instrumental Values • A comfortable life Ambitious • A sense of accomplishment Capable • A world of peace Cheerful • A world of beauty Clean • Equality Courageous • Family security Helpful • Happiness Honest • Inner harmony Imaginative • Pleasure Logical • Salvation Obedient • Social recognition Polite • True friendiship Responsible
Contemporary Work Cohorts • (当代工作群体)
Values Across Cultures • A Framework for Assessing Cultures • 1970s Geert Hofstede • Five value dimensions of national culture
Power distance • Individualism vs. collectivism • Quantity of life vs. quality or life • Uncertainty avoidance 不确定性规避 • Long- term vs. short- term orientation
Not all OB theories and concepts are universally applicable to managing people around the world. • You should take into consideration cultural values when trying to understand the behavior of people in different countries.
C — Attitudes • Attitudes are evaluative statements ---- either favorable or unfavorable ---- concerning objects, people, or events. • Researchers have assumed that attitudes have three components: • cognition, affect, and behavior.
Viewing attitudes as being made up of three components ---- cognition, affect and behavior---- is helpful in understanding their complexity and the potential relationship between attitudes and behavior. • These components are closely related, and cognition and affect in particular are inseparable in many ways.
Does behavior always follow from attitudes? • Early---- behavior follow attitudes • In the late 1960s---- attitude follow behavior • Leon Festinger 1950s • Cognitive dissonance (认知失调)
Cognitive dissonance refers to any incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. • The theory of cognitive dissonance suggests that people seek to minimize dissonance and the discomfort it causes.
A person’s desire to reduce dissonance, is determined by • (1) the importance of the elements creating the dissonance, • (2) the degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements, • and (3)the rewards that may be involved in dissonance.
Path: • A: change you behavior • B: conclude that the dissonant behavior is not so important • C: change you attitude • D: seek out more consonant elements to outweigh the dissonant ones
The degree of influence that individuals believe they over the elements will have an impact on how they will react to the dissonance. • Rewards also influence the degree to which individuals are motivated to reduce dissonance.
Organizational implications: • The theory of cognitive dissonance can help to predict the propensity to engage in both attitude and behavior change.
The attitude/ behavior relationship: • Moderating Variables（调节变量） • The importance of the attitude • Its correspondence to behavior • Its accessibility • Whether there exist social pressures • Whether a person has direct experience with the attitude
the major job-related attitudes • Job satisfaction（工作满意度） • Job involvement（工作参与度） • Organizational commitment • （组织承诺）
Job satisfaction • Job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitude toward his or her job. • Determines : • Mentally challenging work (moderate) • Equitable rewards • Supportive working conditions • Supportive colleagues • tangible
Job involvement measures the degree to which people identify psychologically with their job and consider their perceived performance level important to self-worth. • Psychological empowerment（心理授权）is employees’ beliefs in the degree to which they influence their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness or their job, and the perceived autonomy in their work.
Organizational Commitment（组织参与度） • An employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain memberships in the organization. • High organizational commitment means identifying with your employing organization. • Affective commitment（情感承诺） • Continuance commitment（持续承诺） • Normative commitment（规范承诺）
Satisfaction and Productivity • Are satisfied workers more productive than dissatisfied workers? • Early: a happy worker is a productive worker • ? • 1980s: that effect is fairly small • We would conclude that productivity is more likely to lead to satisfaction rather than the other way around.
D — Perception • Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. • None of us sees reality.
Factors influencing perception: • the perceiver • the object or target • the context of the situation
Factor in the perceiver • Attitude • Personality • Motives • Interests • Experience • expectations
Factors in the target • Novelty • Motion • Sounds • Size • Background • Proximity • Similarity
Factors in the context of the situation • Time • Work setting • Social setting
Person perception • Our discussion of perception should focus on person perception.
Attribution Theory（归因理论） • The result is that when we observe people, we attempt to develop explanations of why they behave in certain ways. • Our perception and judgment of a person’s actions, therefore, will be significantly influenced by the assumptions we make about that person’s internal state.
Attribution theory has been proposed to develop explanations of how we judge people differently depending on what meaning we attribute to a given behavior. • Determination: • Distinctiveness • Consensus • Consistency • 1967----Kelly
Internally caused behavior are those believed to be under the personal control of the individual. • Externally caused behavior results from outside causes; that is, the person is seen as forced into the behavior by the situation.
There exists a considerable amount of deviation in attribution.
Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations. • If everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way, we can say the behavior shows consensus. • Consistency— Does the person respond the same way over time?
All similar behavior are not perceived similarly. • We look at actions and judge them within their situational context.
There are errors or biases that distort attributions. • Fundamental attribution error • （基本归因错误） • Self – serving bias（自我服务偏见）
1.Halo Effect （晕轮效应） Shortcuts to judging others