Foundations of Individual Behavior 2 nd chap. Individual behavior. Individual behavior is reflected in terms of productivity, absenteeism, job satisfaction and turnover in the organization. Biographical characteristics.
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Foundations of Individual Behavior 2nd chap Individual behavior. Individual behavior is reflected in terms of productivity, absenteeism, job satisfaction and turnover in the organization. Biographical characteristics. By biographical characteristics we mean personal characteristics, Such as age, gender, and (Tenure) length of service etc.
Biographical characteristics. • Because of the difference in biographical characteristics of the employee i.e. age, gender and length of service (tenure), the individuals have difference in their behavior. • We will study how the personal characteristics of the employees affect their behavior within an organization.
Biographical characteristics How age affects the productivity, absenteeism, job satisfaction and turnover of the employees. Age
Age and productivity • There is a widespread belief that job performance declines with the increase in age, regardless of the fact that whether it is true or not, a lot of people believe it. • Older employees bring a number of qualities to work i.e. experience, commitment, judgment, strong work ethics etc. • Researches conclude that organizations with older staff show better performance results as compared with the organizations having younger staff.
Age and turnover • Older employees are less likely to quit their job as compared with young people, because their longer tenure provides them with number of opportunities i.e. higher wage rates, longer paid vacations, and more attractive pension benefits. • So we can say that turnover rate is lower in older employees and is higher in young employees. • Younger employees when find more opportunities for their career growth they try to avail them.
Age and absenteeism • There are two types of absences in organizations. • Avoidable absences and unavoidable absences. • The younger people have higher rate of avoidable absences but older employees have higher rate of unavoidable absences. • the reason is that older people can become ill in crucial times of organizations because of poor health and longer recovery periods.
Age and job satisfaction • Job satisfaction increases as the employees get older in an organization .
How gender affects the productivity, job satisfaction, absenteeism and turnover of an employee.
Gender and productivity • There are no consistent differences in problem solving skill, analytical skill, motivation, or learning skill between male and female employees. • Both male and female are equal in productivity. Gender and turnover. female workers have higher quit rate than men. The reason is that they have more home responsibilities.
Gender and absenteeism • The absence rate is higher in women in those cultures where the home and child care is primarily women’s responsibility. Otherwise they have similar absence rate as compared with men. Gender and job satisfaction Females seem to be more satisfied with their jobs. The reason is that they have naturally got the quality of showing conformity with the rules and regulations of the organization.
How does the tenure of employee affects the productivity, absenteeism, job satisfaction and turnover of an employee.
Tenure and productivity • There is a positive relationship between length of service and productivity. • The reason is the increased experience of the employee. Tenure and absenteeism. Researches show that tenure and absenteeism are negatively related. Older employees have higher absence rate than younger employees
Tenure and job satisfaction • The older employees have better understanding of job attitude, rules regulations and performance level of the organization. • They have a favorable tendency towards job satisfaction. Tenure and turnover. The longer a person is in a job, the less likely he or she is to quit. Any way the employee’s previous behavior is the best predictor of his future behavior.
Abilities • Definition An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. • We all are not equal in abilities, but it does not mean that we are inferior or superiors to others inherently. • We have strengths and weaknesses in terms of abilities that make us relatively superior or inferior to others in performing certain tasks or activities.
Abilities • Types of abilities • Mental(intellectual) abilities • Physical abilities
Types of abilities Intellectual abilities Intellectual abilities are those needed to perform mental activities i.e. thinking, reasoning, and problem solving.
Types of intellectual abilities 1. Number aptitude. the ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic. For example accountants
Types of intellectual abilities 2. Verbal comprehension. the ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other. For example any manager following the policies of organization.
Types of intellectual abilities 3.Perceptual speed the ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately. For example investigator identifying clues to support a charge.
Types of intellectual abilities 4.Inductive reasoning. the abilities to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve the problem. For example market researcher forecasting demand for a product in the next time period.
Types of intellectual abilities 5.Spatial visualization the ability to imagine that how an object would look like if its position in space were changed. For example interior decorator decorating an office.
Types of intellectual abilities 6. Memory. the ability to retain and recall past experiences. For example sales person remembering the names of the customers.
Physical Abilities • Definition. The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, manual labor, strength, and similar activities.
Employee’sAbilities Job’s AbilityRequirements The Ability-Job Fit Ability-JobFit It is the responsibility of the management to first understand what types of abilities their job demands, for which they are hiring an individual as well as the employee’s abilities and to decide whether the candidate is fit for the announced job or not.