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IDEIA, SLD, RTI, and Cognitive Assessment. Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology Center for Cognitive Development School Psychology Program Director George Mason University Fairfax, VA 22030 http://ccd.gmu.edu naglieri@gmu.edu. IDEA Reauthorization. Topical outline

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ideia sld rti and cognitive assessment

IDEIA, SLD, RTI, and Cognitive Assessment

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D.

Professor of Psychology

Center for Cognitive Development

School Psychology Program Director

George Mason University

Fairfax, VA 22030

http://ccd.gmu.edu

naglieri@gmu.edu

idea reauthorization
IDEA Reauthorization
  • Topical outline
    • IDEIA and forthcoming regulations
      • A look at the Law
    • Response to intervention
      • Local comparison groups
      • Measurement of improvement
      • Research and reviews
    • A cognitive approach to assessment
      • Connecting LD definition with assessment of “basic psychological processes”

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

idea reauthorization3
IDEA Reauthorization
  • Topical outline
    • IDEIA and forthcoming regulations
      • A look at the Law
    • Response to intervention
      • Local comparison groups
      • Measurement of improvement
      • Research and reviews
    • A cognitive approach to assessment
      • Connecting LD definition with assessment of “basic psychological processes”

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

ideia 2004 law
IDEIA 2004 Law

Individuals with Disabilities

Education Improvement Act of 2004

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

idea reauthorization5
IDEA Reauthorization

The IDEIA and the No Child Left Behind Act have encouraged a reexamination of how school psychologists function

There have been many meetings of researchers, practitioners, and professional organizations and articles written which discuss how to improve the system, especially for LD diagnosis

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

idea reauthorization6
IDEA Reauthorization
  • Reexamination of
    • the role of the school psychologists is good for the evolution of the field
    • how to improve diagnosis of Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) is particularly important
    • how to reduce over-representation of minority children in special education is also needed

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

ideia

IDEIA

What are some of the details of the new Law?

ideia 2004 law8

IQ achievement discrepancy no longer required

IDEIA 2004 Law

RTI may be used AS A PART of the evaluation… but not as sole method

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

ideia 2004 law9
IDEIA 2004 Law

“use a variety of assessment tools”

“not use any single procedure”

“assess cognitive factors”

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

ideia 2004 law10
IDEIA 2004 Law

non discriminatory assessments

valid and reliable assessment

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

ideia law summary
IDEIA Law Summary
  • Ability achievement discrepancy is no longer required (not disallowed)
  • A variety of assessment tools required
  • The use of any single measure or assessment as the sole criterion for determining SLD is not permitted
  • Assessments must not be discriminatory on racial or cultural basis
  • Definition of SLD remains

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

ideia 2004 law12

Definition of SLD remains the same

IDEIA 2004 Law

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

sld definition in both bills
SLD Definition in Both Bills
  • The definition of SLD has not changed
    • “The term ‘specific learning disability’ means a disorder in one or more of thebasic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.”

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

reactions to ideia

Reactions to IDEIA

Anticipation of the Regulations that follow…

slide16

Align the definition of SLD with the classification criteria

Replace discrepancy with pattern of strengths and weaknesses and cognitive abilities impacting achievement

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

sld cognitive processing

SLD & Cognitive Processing

Connecting the dots

hale naglieri kaufman kavale 2004
Hale, Naglieri, Kaufman, & Kavale (2004)

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

hale naglieri kaufman kavale 200420
Hale, Naglieri, Kaufman, & Kavale (2004)
  • The definition of SLD is
    • “… a disorder in 1 or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.”
  • Neither the discrepancy model or RTI evaluates basic psychology processes

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

hale naglieri kaufman kavale 200421
Hale, Naglieri, Kaufman, & Kavale (2004)
  • The method of RTI is disconnected from the definition of SLD
  • “Establishing a disorder in the basic psychology processes is essential for determining SLD”
  • Practitioners have ignored this approach because of limited availability of good measures of processing
  • Times have changed

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

hale naglieri kaufman kavale 200422
Hale, Naglieri, Kaufman, & Kavale (2004)
  • Processing measures of today are very different than those of the 1970s
  • Tests that we specifically developed to measure basic psychological processes should be used
    • Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children 2nd Edition
    • Cognitive Assessment System

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

hale naglieri kaufman kavale 200423
Hale, Naglieri, Kaufman, & Kavale (2004)
  • Defining intelligence as processing
    • leads to smaller race and ethnic differences than traditional IQ tests
    • Yields excellent prediction to achievement
    • Provides sensitivity to the cognitive disorders seen in many exceptional children
    • Has demonstrated relationships to intervention

Naglieri, J. A. (2003). Current advances in assessment and intervention for children with learning disabilities. In T. E. Scruggs and M. A. Mastropieri (Eds.) Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities Volume 16: Identification and assessment (pp. 163-190). New York: JAI.

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

what is next
What is Next?
  • Current status as of March 2005
    • Regulations which are interpretations of the law are being written
    • Input on the regulations was due by Feb 28, 2005
  • We need to learn about the strengths and weakness of the options
    • RTI – which may be included
    • Assessment of basic psychological processes – which needs to be assessed

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

idea reauthorization25
IDEA Reauthorization
  • Topical outline
    • IDEIA and forthcoming regulations
      • A look at the Law
    • Response to intervention
      • Local comparison groups
      • Measurement of improvement
      • Research and reviews
    • A cognitive approach to assessment
      • Connecting LD definition with assessment of “basic psychological processes”

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

idea reauthorization27
IDEA Reauthorization
  • Topical outline
    • IDEA reauthorization
    • The problem of LD identification
    • Response to intervention
      • Local comparison groups
      • Measurement of improvement
    • A cognitive approach to assessment

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

response to intervention and sld

Response to Intervention and SLD

A summary of the method and researchers’ response to RTI

kovaleski prasse 2004
Kovaleski & Prasse (2004)
  • The dual discrepancy format for SLD identification
    • Part 1: Low academic performance
    • Part 2: Poor response to appropriate instruction

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

kovaleski prasse 2004 part 1
Kovaleski & Prasse (2004) Part 1
  • Low academic performance
    • The student must be significantly below same-grade peers
      • Shinn (2002) notes that a 2.0 grade level discrepancy is a typical index that identifies a significant academic deficiency
      • This is based on a discrepancy from grade-level performance without reference to an assessment of the student’s ability level (i.e., IQ)

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

assessing academic performance
Assessing Academic Performance
  • Low academic performance (continued)
    • BUT… Shinn’s 2.0 grade level discrepancy is also a “wait to fail ”model because you can’t be behind by two years until you are in at least second grade
    • BUT…The grade equivalent method has many well known psychometric problems
    • AND…differences in curriculum can influence who is behind

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

kovaleski prasse 2004 part 132
Kovaleski & Prasse (2004) Part 1
  • Low academic performance (continued)
    • Advocates argue for RTI as a curriculum-based measurement (CBM) approach
    • Reading fluency is overemphasized
    • The student’s discrepancy is determined in relation to classmates by comparing the performance on CBM measures with norms from the student’s school or school district

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

assessing academic performance33
Assessing Academic Performance
  • Local Norms
    • Advantage
      • Local norms are good at telling where the child is in relation to the smallest comparison group – the child’s classroom
    • Disadvantage
      • Local norms only tell where the child is in relation to the smallest comparison group – the child’s classroom
      • Change the classroom and the score changes
      • Change the school and the score changes

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

the problem with local norms

The Problem with Local Norms

Fairfax County Schools

fairfax county elementary
Fairfax County Elementary
  • Reading scores were obtained for all 69 elementary schools in Fairfax County Public Schools
  • The schools were ranked on reading scores
  • The 10th, 35th, and 59th ranked schools were selected
  • School based standard scores were computed
  • Reading score – standard score (mean 100, SD of 15) were computed and compared across schools

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

slide36

The same Reading score of 55 yields a standard score of 112 (above average) for a child in Herndon Elementary School but a score of 92 (average) in Columbia Elementary School and a score of 84 (well below average) in Flint Hill Elementary School.

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

local norms for inner city schools
Local Norms for Inner City Schools

Scores based on a national norm group indicate these children are low

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

slide38

Local Norms for Inner City Schools

Standard scores based on local mean falsely describe half the children with national scores below 85 as OK

Standard scores based on a national norm group indicate these children are low

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

local norms
Local Norms
  • How effective is a local norm?
    • It calibrates a child based on a comparison to the classroom, school, or school district
  • Is it consistent across classrooms?
    • By definition – NO
  • Is it consistent across schools?
    • By definition – NO
  • Is it consistent across districts?
    • By definition – NO
  • Local norms provide an inconsistent unit of measurement

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

fairfax county elementary40
Fairfax County Elementary
  • Conclusions on Local Norms
    • Local norms are useful to determine how the child compares to the rest of the class and for instructional planning
    • A wide variety can exist between schools in the same school district
    • A child may be “failing” in one class but doing “well” in another
    • Determining SLD on local norms will yield considerable inequities especially for minority groups

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

kovaleski prasse 2004 part 2
Kovaleski & Prasse (2004) Part 2
  • Poor response to appropriate instruction
    • The student performs poorly to carefully planned and precisely delivered instruction
    • The data are developed through ongoing progress monitoring on a critical academic measure during the course of an individually designed intervention
    • The use of CBM as an ongoing performance measure (usually through data collected twice per week) is recommended

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

rates of improvement

Rates of Improvement

An Achievement Example

rates of improvement44
Rates of Improvement
  • Vocabulary Growth
    • Meaning vocabulary growth average increase is 2,500 words per year (McCormick, 1998)
    • A child needs to learn about 2,500 words per year to keep up with peers
    • But a child can learn more words every year and still fall behind

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

rates of improvement vocabulary
Rates of Improvement-Vocabulary

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

improvement or deterioration

50% increase in number of words per year expressed as standard scores in relation to normal growth rate

Improvement or Deterioration?

50% increase in number of words learned per year

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

rates of improvement47
Rates of Improvement
  • Visual examination of changes in rate are only sufficient to demonstrate change from baseline
  • Changes over time are helpful for instructional decisions
  • Aim lines based on local norms are misleading

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

conclusions regarding kovaleski prasse 2004

Conclusions Regarding Kovaleski & Prasse (2004)

The dual discrepancy format: Low academic performance and Poor response to instruction

conclusions on dual discrepancy
Conclusions on Dual Discrepancy
  • Changes over time do not necessarily mean the child has reached a level that is consistent with normative expectations
  • Competency levels can be set so low, and “improvement” defined by such small steps, that apparent improvement may be better described as showing Illusory Validity

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

conclusions on dual discrepancy50
Conclusions on Dual Discrepancy
  • RTI may be a reasonable way to find children who are doing poorly in class
  • RTI problems
    • Local norms do not provide consistency
    • Increases in performance can be misleading

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

what do researchers say about rti

What do Researchers say about RTI?

Advantages, disadvantages, claims, and inconsistencies

nrcld conference on rti dec 03
NRCLD Conference on RTI (Dec ‘03)

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

rti conference vellutino 2003
RTI Conference Vellutino (2003)
  • RTI Advocates have argued that IQ scores are unrelated to children’s response to intervention
    • Therefore IQ tests are irrelevant
  • Vellutino especially has made this claim and provided a report of his research

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

full scale iq scores vellutino
Full Scale IQ scores (Vellutino)

FSIQ

Effect Size = .6

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

full scale iq scores
Full Scale IQ scores

Effect size = 1.0

Wechsler FSIQ

From: Case, Speece,& Molly (2004). Validity of Response to Intervention….School Psychology Review, 32,557-582.

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

rti conference vaughn
RTI Conference - Vaughn
  • Sharon Vaughn described a study of the 3 Tier model
    • Reading fluency was measured
    • From K to 3rd grade, 20% of the children did not benefit from intervention – they are considered SLD
    • School psychologist were not included at any level
  • It took THREE YEARS to identify these children
    • Wait to fail !
  • The study identified 20% of the sample
    • That is a large percentage of the sample
  • Conclusion: the hope that RTI offers faster identification of LD and reduces the numbers of children found was not achieved

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

rti conference gerber
RTI Conference - Gerber
  • Michael Gerber- The costs of RTI
    • He estimated that the cost for TRI for grades K-3 for the first year of a national scale implementation was $2,033,228,291
    • The 2003 Federal Appropriations for NCLB (Title II, Part A) is $1,780,825,000
    • The cost is $252,403,291 more than the allocation!

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

rti conference kavale
RTI Conference - Kavale
  • Success is not well defined in the RTI model
  • Increases in rate of learning alone are not sufficient
  • There are not clear definitions or cut scores to indicate failure to respond to intervention
  • RTI is a good first step
  • SLD is more than just reading failure but RTI has been limited to reading fluency

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

rti conference kavale59
RTI Conference - Kavale
  • The definition of LD has been ignored
  • There is no connection between the definition of SLD and the method of RTI
  • RTI is not sufficient for identification of LD
  • “a formal evaluation is absolutely necessary” or inappropriate conclusions may be reached because reading failure can be caused by depression, emotional / behavioral disorders, anxiety disorders, ADHD, etc.

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

rti conference scruggs 2003
RTI Conference - Scruggs (2003)
  • RTI reading interventions should be used in general education to assure high-quality instruction and provide alternatives to special education placement
  • LD identification should be accomplished on the basis of strict adherence to criteria for identification which as commonly known, has not been followed in many parts of the country

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

rti conference mastropieri
RTI Conference - Mastropieri
  • The RTI model is too focused on reading decoding and ignores other areas such as reading comprehension, math, science, etc.
  • Implementation of RTI at middle and high school levels seems unlikely
    • This is particularly important given the number of students who are currently identified at the middle and early high school level

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

rti conference mastropieri62
RTI Conference - Mastropieri
  • The RTI movement is an attempt to change regular education
    • Earlier attempts to change regular education emanating from special education have failed
  • RTI is too limited to meet the diverse needs of SLD children
  • SLD is more than reading decoding or reading fluency
  • Too much emphasis on phonics

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

rti conference mastropieri63
RTI Conference - Mastropieri
  • She asked “Where is the solid research base providing scientific evidence for optimal instructional methods and materials across all grade levels and all curriculum levels?
  • The reading methods are described as “scientifically based” but where is the science?

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

research on rti

Research on RTI

Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P, & Young, C. (2003). Responsiveness-to-intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications fro the learning Disabilities Construct. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18, 157-171.

fuchs et al 2003
Fuchs, et al., (2003)
  • Ohio’s Intervention Based Assessment
    • IBA combines a behavioral problem-solving approach with collaborative consultation
      • Behavioral definition of the problem
      • Baseline data are collected
      • Behavioral definition of the problem
      • Goals are set
      • Intervention plan implemented
      • Compare student to baseline

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

fuchs et al 200366
Fuchs, et al., (2003)
  • Telzrow,et al., 2000 evaluated the IBA program
    • 329 schools were involved
    • “The present study suggests that reliable implementation of problem solving approaches in schools remains elusive”
    • They did not find evidence of reliable and consistent implementation

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

fuchs et al 200367
Fuchs, et al., (2003)
  • Pennsylvania’s Instructional Support Teams (IST)
    • Collaborative problem solving that provides prereferral intervention like Ohio
    • Composition of team is a little different
    • IST uses curriculum-based assessment
      • Baseline, a goal is set, intervention planned
      • 50 day limit
        • If no success, multidisciplinary evaluation possible

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

fuchs et al 200368
Fuchs, et al., (2003)
  • Pennsylvania’s Instructional Support Teams (IST)
    • Kovaleski et al., (1999) studied the impact of IST and found the students showed better progress than students in non-IST schools
    • But, according to Fuchs “time on task and task completion and comprehension are only indirect academic measures” (p. 162)

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

fuchs et al 200369
Fuchs, et al., (2003)
  • Heartland (Iowa) and Minneapolis four level model
    • Teacher and parents try to fix problem
    • Teacher and Building Assistance Team select, implement, & monitor intervention
    • Behavioral problem solving used to refine or redesign the intervention
    • Special educational assistance is considered

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

fuchs et al 200370
Fuchs, et al., (2003)
  • “Although the Minneapolis Public Schools (2001) report that, “The problem-solving model has undergone considerable evaluation” we found few published or unpublished evaluations; none in peer-reviewed journals.
  • The report described school wide reading gains…but no data were presented

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

fuchs et al 200371
Fuchs, et al., (2003)
  • CONCLUSION #1
    • Evaluations of collaborative problem solving “have generally failed to produce persuasive evidence that classroom-based interventions (1) are implemented with fidelity and (2) strengthen student’s academic achievement or improve classroom behavior” (p. 163)

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

fuchs et al 200372
Fuchs, et al., (2003)
  • CONCLUSIONS #2 & 3
    • There is insufficient evidence of the effectiveness of RTI approaches in Ohio and Pennsylvania… and especially in versions used in Heartland and Minneapolis (p. 166)
    • “More troubling…is that these largely untested procedures are the basis of…RTI…which is being considered as a replacement for IQ-achievement discrepancy”

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

fuchs et al 200373
Fuchs, et al., (2003)
  • CONCLUSION #4
    • The absence of evidence weakens the assumption that RTI provides feasible, timely, and effective interventions (p. 166).
    • Proponents of RTI as an alternative means of LD identification must sill prove that their problem-solving approach is worthy of the descriptor “scientifically based” (p. 167)

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

rti pros and cons
RTI – Pros and Cons
  • RTI may be a reasonable way to find children who are doing poorly in class
  • RTI problems
    • Local norms do not provide consistency
    • Increases in performance can be misleading
    • There is no evidence that RTI is effective for SLD identification
    • RTI is inconsistent with the definition of SLD
    • RTI is not well supported by research

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

information from nasp

Information from NASP

www.nasponline.org

idea reauthorization rti
IDEA Reauthorization & RTI
  • Other issues…

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

idea reauthorization ld
IDEA Reauthorization & LD

Assessment is defined as a process of gathering information from a variety of sources, using a variety of methods that best address the reason for evaluation.

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

idea reauthorization ld78
IDEA Reauthorization & LD

Select assessment methods that include multiple sources of information…procedures…and settings

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

idea reauthorization ld79
IDEA Reauthorization & LD

NASP endorses assessment practices that are:

Multidimensional

Comprehensive and address educational, cognitive, and mental health needs

Not limited to any single methodology or theoretical framework

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

idea reauthorization ld80
IDEA Reauthorization & LD

All approaches to assessment are used in ways consistent with their scientific base…

This includes norm and performance based, standardized and functional assessments; intelligence, cognitive processing, social-emotional, academic skills, etc

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

idea and cognitive assessment
IDEA and Cognitive Assessment
  • Topical outline
    • IDEA reauthorization
    • The problem of LD identification
    • Response to intervention
      • Local comparison groups
      • Measurement of improvement
    • A cognitive approach to assessment
      • Connecting LD definition with assessment of “basic psychological processes”

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

idea and cognitive assessment82
IDEA and Cognitive Assessment
  • How do we connect the definition of LD with methods to assess it?
    • Measure “basic psychological processes” using well validated standardized tests built on current views of processing
  • Two options to measure processing
    • Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) theory and CAS (Naglieri & Das, 1997)
    • The K-ABC II (Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004)

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

hale naglieri kaufman kavale 200483
Hale, Naglieri, Kaufman, & Kavale (2004)
  • Measuring processing has advantages:
    • smaller race and ethnic differences than traditional IQ tests
    • excellent prediction to achievement
    • sensitivity to the cognitive disorders seen in many exceptional children
    • Connection to intervention

Naglieri, J. A. (2003). Current advances in assessment and intervention for children with learning disabilities. In T. E. Scruggs and M. A. Mastropieri (Eds.) Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities Volume 16: Identification and assessment (pp. 163-190). New York: JAI.

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

naglieri kaufman kavale hale
Naglieri, Kaufman, Kavale, Hale
  • specific learning disability “means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes ...” (§ 602(30)(A))
  • The law provides that, as part of the evaluation procedures in Sec. 614 of IDEIA, the local education agency shall use technically sound instruments that may assess the relative contribution of cognitive and behavioral factors… (§ 614(b)(2)(C)).

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

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Naglieri, Kaufman, Kavale, Hale
  • The regulations should provide that a comprehensive evaluation of these “basic psychology processes” must be part of the methods used to determine whether the child is learning disabled. In so doing, the definition of SLD and the procedures used to determine eligibility would be united.

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

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Naglieri, Kaufman, Kavale, Hale
  • We also strongly support section § 614(b)(3)(A)(iii) of the law which states that assessment of these basic psychological processes must be conducted using well validated, reliable, norm-referenced cognitive measures that are not discriminatory on racial or cultural basis.

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

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Naglieri, Kaufman, Kavale, Hale
  • we support the use of a response to intervention method at the pre-referral stage.
  • We further support the fact that Congress has recognized (Sec. 614(b)(6)(B)) that the use of the RTI must include cognitive assessment conducted using well validated, reliable, norm referenced measures in accordance with paragraphs (2) and (3) of Sec. 614(b).

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

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IDEIA 2004 Law

“assess cognitive factors”

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

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Naglieri, Kaufman, Kavale, Hale
  • We hope that the regulations will not favor the use of any particular methodology for eligibility determinations because, for example, we are not aware of any studies that show RTI can be conducted in a manner that is valid and reliable across state and local educational authorities nor that this method is nondiscriminatory.

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

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IDEIA, SLD, RTI, and Cognitive Assessment

Conclusions and Closing Thoughts

summary
Summary
  • School Psychology is a field that is diverse and diversity is our strength
  • There are many tools that we can use, and this variety allows us to be more effective
  • We should use methods that …
    • are consistent with the definition of SLD
    • are consistent with the non discriminatory requirement
    • are an alternative to IQ achievement discrepancy
    • are related to instructional interventions

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

summary92
Summary
  • IDEIA law, CEC position, Roundtable Consensus Report, and NASP documents all say use more than one methodology
  • The most defensible way to identify SLD is through a comprehensive evaluation conducted by a school psychologist that includes basic psychological processes (SLD definition) in addition to other data (e.g., RTI, achievement test data, measures of emotional status, etc.)

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu

references
References

Hale, B., Naglieri, J. A., Kaufman, A. S. & Kavale, K. A. (2004). Specific learning disability classification in the new Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: The danger of good ideas. The School Psychologist, 58, 6-13.

Kavale, K. A., Kaufman, A. S., Naglieri, J A., & Hale, J. B. Changing procedures for identifying learning disabilities: The danger of poorly supported ideas. The School Psychologist, 59, 16-25.

Naglieri, J. A. (2003). Current advances in assessment and intervention for children with learning disabilities. In T. E. Scruggs and M. A. Mastropieri (Eds.) Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities Volume 16: Identification and assessment (pp. 163-190). New York: JAI.

Naglieri, J. A. (2002). Best practices in interventions for school psychologists: A cognitive approach to problem solving. In A. Thomas & J. Grimmes (Eds.). Best practices in school psychology (4th Ed)(pp. 1373-1392). Bethesda, MD: NASP.

Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030. naglieri@gmu.edu