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Jervis: Hypotheses on Misperception. H1: decision-makers tend to fit incoming information into their existing theories and images H1a: theory will have greater impact on actor’s interpretation of data a) the greater the ambiguity of the data, and

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jervis hypotheses on misperception
Jervis: Hypotheses on Misperception
  • H1: decision-makers tend to fit incoming information into their existing theories and images
    • H1a: theory will have greater impact on actor’s interpretation of data
        • a) the greater the ambiguity of the data, and
        • b) the higher the degree of confidence with which the actor holds the theory
jervis hypotheses on misperception1
Jervis: Hypotheses on Misperception
  • H2: scholars and decision-makers are apt to err by being too wedded to the established view and too closed to new information, as opposed to being too willing to alter their theories
  • H3: actors can more easily assimilate into their established image of another actor information contradicting that image if the information is transmitted and considered bit by bit than if it comes all at once
jervis hypotheses on misperception2
Jervis: Hypotheses on Misperception
  • H4: misperception is most difficult to correct in the case of a missing concept and least difficult to accept in the case of a recognized but presumably unfilled concept
          • (middle category: actor holds concept but does not believe it corresponds to reality)
jervis hypotheses on misperception3
Jervis: Hypotheses on Misperception
  • H5: when messages are sent from a different background of concerns and information than is possessed by the receiver, misunderstanding is likely
  • H6: when people spend a great deal of time drawing up a plan or making a decision, they tend to think that the message about it they wish to convey will be clear to the receiver
jervis hypotheses on misperception4
Jervis: Hypotheses on Misperception
  • H7: actors often do not realize that actions intended to project a given image may not have the desired effect because the actions themselves do not turn out as planned
  • H8: there is an overall tendency for decision-makers to see other states as more hostile than they are
  • H9: actors tend to see the behavior of others as more centralized, disciplined, and coordinated than it is
jervis hypotheses on misperception5
Jervis: Hypotheses on Misperception
  • H10: because a state gets most of its information about the other state’s policies from the other’s foreign office, it tends to take the foreign office’s position for the stand of the other government as a whole
  • H11: actors tend to overestimate the degree to which others are acting in response to what they themselves do when others behave in accordance with the actor’s desires; but when the behavior of the other is undesired, it is usually seen as derived from internal forces
jervis hypotheses on misperception6
Jervis: Hypotheses on Misperception
  • H12: when actors have intentions that they do not try to conceal from others, they tend to assume that others accurately perceive these intentions
  • H13: if it is hard for an actor to believe that the other can see him as a menace, it is often even harder for him to see that issues important to him are not important to the others
  • H14: actors tend to overlook the fact that evidence consistent with their theories may also be consistent with other views