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Chapter 4. System Unit. Overview. Describe System Unit Components Identify Motherboard Components Describe Processor Functions Explain Computer Data Representation Differentiate Memory Types Differentiate Ports & Connectors. System Unit. Case Containing Electronic Components.

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Presentation Transcript
overview
Overview
  • Describe System Unit Components
  • Identify Motherboard Components
  • Describe Processor Functions
  • Explain Computer Data Representation
  • Differentiate Memory Types
  • Differentiate Ports & Connectors
system unit
System Unit
  • Case Containing Electronic Components
common components
Common Components
  • Processor
  • Memory
  • Adapter Cards
    • Video
    • Sound
    • Modem
    • Network
  • Ports
  • Drive Bays
  • Power Supply
motherboard
Motherboard
  • Main Circuit Board in System Unit
  • Contains
    • Processor
    • Memory
    • Adapter Cards
    • Chips
      • Integrated Circuits
processor
Processor
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
    • Interprets & Executes Basic Instructions
    • Components
      • Control Unit
        • Directs & Coordinates Operations
      • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
        • Arithmetic (+-*/)
        • Comparison (=<>)
        • Logical (and or not)
processor1
Processor
  • System Clock
    • Controls Timing of All Operations
    • Generates Ticks
      • Regular Electronic Pulses
      • Smallest Unit of Time Recognized by a Device
processor2
Processor
  • System Clock
    • Processor Speed Measured by Ticks/Second
      • MHz – One Million Ticks/Second
        • Type 100 Words/Minute = 8 Characters/Second
        • 8088 Processor @ 4.77 MHz
        • Character ► 50,000 Other Tasks ► Character
      • GHz – One Billion Ticks per Second
processor3
Processor
  • Machine Cycle
    • Fetch
      • Obtain Instruction From Memory
    • Decode
      • Translate Instruction to Commands
    • Execute
      • Carry Out Command
    • Store
      • Write Result to Memory
  • CPU Executes 1-3+ Cycles per Tick
processor4
Processor
  • Machine Cycle Example

1) Fetch instruction: “Get number at address 123456”

2) Decode instruction

3) Execute: ALU finds the number (which is 5)

4) Store: The number ‘5’ is stored in a register

5 – 8)  Repeat steps for another number (which is 6)

9) Fetch instruction: “Add number in Reg1 to Reg2”

10) Decode instruction

11) Execute: ALU adds the numbers

12) Store: The answer is stored in a register

13) Fetch instruction: “Display answer on screen”

14) Decode instruction

15) Execute: Display answer on screen

processor5
Processor
  • Cooling Systems
    • Heat Sink
      • Component that Cools Processor
    • Heat Pipe
      • Used in Notebooks
    • Liquid Cooling
      • Continuous Fluid Flow Transfers Heat Away
data representation
Data Representation
  • Binary
    • Most Computers are Digital
    • Recognize Two Discrete States
      • On / Off
      • Equivalent Numbering System
        • Bits (Binary Digit)
          • Two Unique Digits
          • 0 / 1
data representation1
3

5

D

Data Representation
  • Byte
    • Eight Bits Grouped Together
    • Represent
      • Numbers
      • Uppercase & Lowercase Letters
      • Punctuation
      • Special Characters
data representation2
Data Representation
  • Coding Systems
    • ASCII
      • PC
    • EBCDIC
      • Mainframe
    • Unicode
      • Other Languages
memory
Memory
  • One or More Chips on Motherboard
  • Each Byte Stored in Unique Location
    • Address
  • Stores Three Basic Categories of Items
    • OS & Other System Software
    • Application Program Instructions
    • Data Being Processed & Resulting Info
memory1
Memory
  • Sizes
memory2
Memory
  • RAM (Random Access Memory)
    • Read From / Written To by Processor
    • Volatile
      • Content Lost When Power is Absent
    • More = Faster Operation
  • DRAM (Dynamic)
    • Standard
  • SRAM (Static)
  • MRAM (Magnetoresistive)
memory3
Memory
  • Location
    • Memory Resides on Small Circuit Board
      • Memory Module
    • Memory Slots Hold Memory Modules
      • On Motherboard
memory4
Memory
  • System Requirements
    • Based on Types of Applications Used
  • Cache
    • Speeds Computer Processes
      • Stores Frequently Used Instructions & Data
memory5
Memory
  • ROM (Read Only Memory)
    • Stores Permanent Data & Instructions
    • Non-volatile
    • Types
      • Firmware – Permanently Written Data
        • BIOS (Basic Input / Output System)
          • Sequence of Instructions to Start Computer
      • PROM – Blank
      • EEPROM – Electrically Erasable PROM
memory6
Memory
  • Flash
    • Non-volatile
    • Can be Erased & Reprogrammed
    • Used in
      • Cell Phone
      • Digital Camera
      • MP3 Player
      • USB Storage
additional functionality
Additional Functionality
  • Expansion Slots & Adapter Cards
    • Expansion Slot
      • Socket on Motherboard Holds Adapter Card
    • Adapter Card
      • Enhances System Unit
      • Provides Connections to Peripherals
    • Plug n’ Play
      • Automatically Configured When Installed
additional functionality1
Additional Functionality
  • Port
    • Connects Peripheral to System Unit
  • Connector
    • Joins Cable to Peripheral
    • Male or Female
additional functionality2
Additional Functionality
  • Ports & Connectors
additional functionality3
Additional Functionality
  • USB (Universal Serial Bus)
    • Printer, Digital Camera, Phone, Flash, etc.
    • Bluetooth
      • Wireless
  • Firewire
    • Data Transfer
  • IrDA
    • Wireless Data Transfer
slide26
Bus
  • Pathway Used to Communicate
    • On Motherboard
      • Allows Devices to Communicate with Each Other
  • Data Bus
  • Address Bus
  • Bus Width
    • Word
      • Number of Bits Processor can Use at Once
other components
Other Components
  • Bay
    • Opening Inside System Unit
    • Used to Install Additional Equipment
      • Typically Holds Disk Drives
  • Power Supply
    • Converts AC Power into DC Power
    • Fan Keeps System Unit Components Cool
maintenance
Maintenance
  • Clean Device Once or Twice a Year
    • Turn Off & Unplug Device
    • Compressed Air to Blow Out Dust
    • Clean Case Exterior
      • Antistatic Wipe
    • Clean Monitor
      • Cleaning Solution & Soft Cloth
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