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Issues in USHE: Assignment One. Review and Reflection. Items 1 and 2. These items are Yale Report, University of Virginia, Morrill Acts and Hatch Act. All are nineteenth century events, demonstrating the maturing of USHE.

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issues in ushe assignment one

Issues in USHE: Assignment One

Review and Reflection

items 1 and 2
Items 1 and 2
  • These items are Yale Report, University of Virginia, Morrill Acts and Hatch Act.
  • All are nineteenth century events, demonstrating the maturing of USHE.
  • Taken together they illustrate the growing duality of the USHE curriculum, liberal arts/sciences and the applied sciences, technology and occupational education.
item 1
Item 1
  • The Yale Report
    • argued the case for the arts and sciences
    • through them was the mind disciplined, strong and nimble in resources to serve
      • high public purposes
      • the private demands of economic life (suggestion by later scholars)
  • See Jack C. Lane. “The Yale Report of 1828 and Liberal Education: A Neorepublican Manifesto.” In ASHE Reader, 184-92. From History of Education Quarterly, 1987, Backwell (UK).
item 11
Item 1
  • The University of Virginia (1825)
    • proclaimed student choice in the curriculum
    • was broadly secular in mission.
  • It reflected and influenced developments in a broader curriculum and mission.
some ideas for you to ponder
Some ideas for you to ponder
  • How important was choice of courses to you for your baccalaureate? Why or why not?
  • Is the US system of required and elective courses with a liberal arts foundation a strength? Illustrate
item 2
Item 2
  • These are the Morrill and Hatch Acts of Congress
  • They formalized and promoted a national category of “land grant” universities, by grants of both land and funds.
  • These institutions were to emphasize the agricultural and mechanic arts (A&M) and related studies
item 21
Item 2
  • They illustrate the growing influence of the federal government in what in the US is a state matter: the establishment, regulation, promotion and quality of higher education
  • They encouraged the development of what became major state universities with a diverse curriculum, conducting much research, now a great strength of USHE
item 2 ideas for you
Item 2: Ideas for you
  • What are the benefits, if any, to the student of the large comprehensive state universities? to the state? Explain
item 3
Item 3
  • These are two cases argued before the Supreme Court.
  • Dartmouth vs Woodward set the precedent for local institutional control at US private colleges and universities
  • Sweezy vs New Hampshire confirmed freedom in academic enquiry and speech and furthered the rights of the academy to hire its own and select its students.
item 3 ideas for you
Item 3: Ideas for you
  • USHE is locally governed. Is this a weakness compared to national systems?
  • USHE defends the pursuit of truth and knowledge. What are the limits of free enquiry? Do students have knowledge rights of their own?
item 4
Item 4
  • This item lists US colleges and universities in three groups.
  • Group one includes colleges with
    • particular social missions: integration, research
    • particular characteristics: graduate and research work; philanthropy
    • all now seen as fundamental to USHE values and purposes
item 41
Item 4
  • Group two includes colleges founded to serve particular populations
    • Women
    • African Americans
    • Native Americans
  • Since their founding, they have adjusted
  • Their founding reflected particular social realities and responded to them
item 42
Item 4
  • Group three includes colleges founded with particular institutional missions
    • Faith-based
    • Faith-based and secular commitments
    • Secular and open access purposes
item 4 ideas for you
Item 4: Ideas for you
  • To what extent does the variety of USHE indicate its purposes? To what extent do its purposes reflect the development of the nation?
item 5
Item 5
  • The two Federal Acts anticipated and responded to economic and social conditions and pressures.
  • Each brought large new populations to USHE, and huge amounts of federal funds
  • Each raises issues about the federal role in USHE, and expectations of USHE
item 51
Item 5
  • The National Youth Administration, 1935 Responded to the unemployment of the Great Depression
  • Funded youth to attend school and college
  • Funded youth to work
  • Criticized as a waste of taxpayer dollars
item 52
Item 5
  • The “GI Bill” eventually supported over 2 million people to attend college
  • “Non-traditional” students; “non-traditional” programs - evening and night college
item 5 gi bill
Item 5: GI Bill
  • “Enrollments… rose far beyond normal capacity. … Special … mechanisms were created. Curricula were streamlined to help veterans complete their work rapidly. Year-round schedules were adopted, and graduation requirements were relaxed. Credit for (military service). Refresher courses and noncredit programs for poorly prepared veterans…”

Richard M Freeland, “The World Transformed: A Golden Age for American Universities”. ASHE Reader, 597-618 . In his Academia’s Golden Age: Universities in Massachusetts, 1945-1970 (1992), OUP UK

item 5 ideas for you
Item 5: Ideas for you
  • What makes federal influence possible in USHE? How do large influxes of categories of students affect USHE?
item 53
Item 5
  • These are federal national policy statements that fundamentally re-shaped USHE
  • The “Truman Report” recommended a broad expansion of access with funding support; it described a system of higher education open to and serving American democracy with admissions and programs reducing inequality
item 54
Item 5
  • The Higher Education Act of 1965 built on earlier federal legislation supporting students and HE, and is marked by support for students considered economically or academically disadvantaged, for developing institutions, for libraries, and for teachers.
  • It is a Great Society program that envisions HE as a national benefit.
item 5 ideas for you1
Item 5: Ideas for you
  • Has the availability of federal student loan and grant programs affected your education? If yes, what would you have done without them? If no, here’s idea two
  • USHE is open to all - should it be so or should an academic assessment, similar to financial needs assessment, determine admissions cut offs?
item 6
Item 6
  • These are the AAUP Statement of principles and ABOR
  • Each addresses the issues of the rights and responsibilities of the academy.
  • AAUP stated the position of the faculty as the leaders of the generation and transmission of knowledge
  • ABOR approached the matter from the consumer, the student and society
item 61
Item 6
  • Both share similar principles but
  • Are apart in purpose and implementation
  • The AAUP statement is widely adopted by colleges and universities and included in governance, Board, senate and union documents
  • ABOR has been adopted as a guideline by a number of state legislatures
item 62
Item 6
  • Thought for you
    • What’s your take?
item 7
Item 7
  • The Pell Grant is now the major federal financial aid program for HE
  • It opened access for HE for millions of students, particularly those from low income families
  • Has grown from $1.3M in appropriation, 1.9 M students and annual award of $1,400 K (FY1976) to $ 13M approp., 5.4 M students and annual award of $4,050 (FY2006)
item 71
Item 7
  • The Gates Millenium Scholar program is a major private sector program promoting access and success in HE
  • Funded by a one billion dollar grant
  • Focus on Pell eligible students of color
  • Focus on reducing financial barriers AND promoting progress and success
  • 5,000 current students
item eight
Item Eight
  • The Bush Administration created the very significant K-12 program, No Child Left Behind
  • The Administration was interested in addressing issues in USHE
  • Secretary Margaret Spelling created a national Commission on USHE.
item eight1
Item Eight
  • Members included prominent individuals from all sectors affected by and affecting USHE
  • The critique of USHE is strong
  • The Commission’s Report called for:
    • Access
    • Affordability
    • Accountability
  • Only one member declined to sign the report
    • The President of ACE
item eight2
Item Eight
  • Thought for you
    • What will happen to the recommendations?
    • Do you see evidence of any being enacted by USHE
    • Why did the ACE President decline to sign?
      • Did he - does USHE - sit on a high horse?
item nine
Item Nine
  • The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act, 2009
    • Should need no introduction to you, but
  • See recovery.gov if you would like an overview
  • OK, so whenever there is a spending bill, every interest gets into the act….
item nine1
Item Nine
  • And education is included …
  • But, as a primary component in reinvestment and recovery (i.e. not secondary or add on earmark)
    • K-12, HE
    • Why? Check it out …
  • One hundred billion dollars
  • (Want some? Join HE)
    • President has proposed twelve billion, that’s 12,000,000,000, for community colleges
    • For? Check it out…
item ten
Item Ten
  • The Open Courseware Consortium
  • Well, make of this what you will … everyone else is doing so
  • And that’s the whole point
  • So, what happens now to
    • Intellectual property and capital?
    • A college curriculum and degree? Text books?
    • Your old lecture notes?
thought for you
Thought for You
  • Still feel good about your decision to join the Ed.D. and the academy?
  • We hope so - you are the future